Wirttgenstein Essay

1221 words - 5 pages

El propósito de la obra es establecer la función y uso legítimo del lenguaje. Éste solo puede expresar hechos por lo que hay numerosos aspectos de la vida que quedan fuera de las posibilidades expresivas (mística). Supuso una revolución dentro de la filosofía.
Wittgenstein afirma que el lenguaje es el intermediario entre pensamientos y realidad, es decir, que manifiesta los pensamientos y éstos solo pueden ser manifestados a través de éste.
Con la teoría pictórica del significado, Wittgenstein afirma que la unidad fundamental de significado es la proposición. Según esta teoría, la ...view middle of the document...

Estas a su vez pueden dividirse en verdaderas o falsas. Una oración puede transmitir un enunciado perfectamente comprensible para otro oyente pero ser falso ya que lo determina el significado de la oración no es si existe el referente sino si se rige según la forma lógica.
Wittgenstein utiliza un lenguaje poco usual para referirse a la relación entre realidad y lenguaje:
Estado de cosas (Sachverhalt). Se compone de objetos y sus relaciones y es una de las posibilidades que permite la realidad (puede ser verdadero o falso); además comparte la misma forma lógica que una proposición elemental que también está formada por nombres relacionados que componen una representación.
Objetos de la realidad. Se corresponden con los elementos que aparecen en la figura o representación y que son los nombres de la proposición.
Un hecho es un estado de cosas que realmente ha acontecido y que se corresponde con una representación.
Los estados de cosas son las posibilidades ofrecidas por la realidad de relacionar diferentes objetos y los hechos son la concreción de una de estas posibilidades. Una proposición que comparta la forma lógica de un estado de cosas tendrá significado y una que comparta la forma lógica de un hecho será verdadera. Cualquier hechos, al constituir una posibilidad lógica, puede ser representado por una oración.
Wittgenstein diferencia entre decir y mostrar:
Lo que se dice es aquella oración que cumple la función de representar la función de representar una realidad. Cualquier objeto real puede decirse mediante el lenguaje.
Lo que se muestra no es un objeto real pero es lo que permite al lenguaje referirse a objetos reales y tener un significado.
Disciplinas como la lógica, la ética o la forma lógica son disciplinas que no pueden decirse porque no son objetos del mundo pero se muestran en el lenguaje ya que son la condición de posibilidad de que dichas proposiciones tengan significado. Wittgenstein las califica de mística.
Estas reflexiones conducen a Wittgenstein a establecer los límites del lenguaje y a distinguir entre lo que se puede y no se puede decir. Estos límites están determinados por la noción de forma lógica y por la diferencia entre decir y mostrar:
La forma lógica establece unos límites porque el lenguaje no puede utilizarse para referirse a un estado de cosas imposible en la realidad. Tradicionalmente los enunciados filosóficos se han...

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