Working With People And Teams Essay

7649 words - 31 pages

Buck and Huck defines the concept of motivation by saying, "motives are learned needs which influence our behaviour by leading us to pursue particular goals because they are socially valued" . Motivation strategy can be defined as a plan or design to define motivational goals.The doctrine that human nature is rational-economic derives ultimately from the philosophy of hedonism, which argued that people act to maximise their self-interest.In terms of employee behaviour, this general line of thought led to the assumptions that, employees are primarily motivated by economic incentives and will do whatever affords them the greatest economic gain. Since economic incentives are under the control ...view middle of the document...

Authority rests essentially in designated offices or positions and the employee is expected to obey whoever occupies a position of authority regardless of the person's expertise or personality.Primary emphasis is on efficient task performance. Management's responsibility for the feelings and morale of people is secondary unless those feelings relate directly to task performance.If people are not producing or morale is low, the solution tends to be sought either in the redesign of jobs and organisational relationships, or in changing the incentive and control system to ensure adequate motivation and production levels.If productivity is low, the company may well try and individual bonus scheme to reward the high producer or it may stimulate competition among workers and give special rewards to winners. Lastly, it will re-examine its control structure. Are supervisors putting enough pressure on employees to produce? Does the system adequately identify and punish the person who fails to produce, who shirks on the job? Are there adequate information-gathering mechanisms to enable management to identify which part of the organisation is failing to carry out its proper share of the load?The burden for organisational performance falls entirely on management. Employees are expected to do no more than incentive and control systems encourage and allow; hence, even if employees did not fit the assumptions made about them, it is unlikely that they could express alternative behaviour.That there is some validity to the rational-economic image of human nature can be seen in our own day-to-day experience and throughout the history of industry. The assumptions and the management principles which follow from them are applicable to many different kinds of situations. For example, the concept of the assembly line as an efficient way to produce has proved itself over and over again. Money and individual incentives have proved to be successful motivators of human effort in many kinds of organisations.Criticisms of rational economic concept of motivation assumed that the motivation of the employee was to secure the maximum earnings for the effort expended. It neglected the importance of other rewards for work (achievement, job satisfaction recognition) which later research has found to be important. The criticisms neglected the subject of work - the personal and interactional aspects of performance, the meanings that employees give to work and the significance to them of their social relationships at work and failed to appreciate the meanings that workers would put on new procedures and their reactions to being timed and closely supervised. The criticisms also had an inadequate understanding of the relationship of the individual incentive to interaction with, and dependence on, the immediate work group. Taylor did attribute 'underworking' to group pressures, but misunderstood the way in which these worked. He failed to see that these might just as easily keep...

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