Xczvggbgfbgfgffdbfgbf Essay

3261 words - 14 pages

entalpiendringen (ΔH) og entropiendringen (ΔS), og som viser om en kjemisk reaksjon vil gå spontant eller ikke. ΔG = ΔH - T·ΔS. Ftalater: En egen type estere som er laget av ftalsyre og alkoholer. Brukes som mykningsmidler i plast, og har hormonhermende effekter. Funksjonell gruppe: En spesiell atomgruppe i organiske forbindelser som forteller oss hvilken gruppe organisk stoff en forbindelse tilhører.

G
Gjeldende siffer: Antall siffer etter siste 0 i et tall. Et svar skal ikke gis med flere gjeldende siffer enn der det er oppgitt med minst antall. Grunnstoff: Atomer som har likt antall protoner i kjernen (samme atomnummer). Grunntilstand: Det laveste (og mest stabile) energinivået et ...view middle of the document...

Virker slik at gult tøy ser hvitt ut. Hydratisering: En reaksjon der et ion binder til seg vannmolekyler. Reaksjonen er alltid sterkt eksoterm. Hydrofil: Navnet betyr "vannelskende". Hydrofile stoffer er vannløselige, og binder seg lett til vannmolekyler.

Hydrofob: Navnet betyr "vannskyende". Hydrofobe stoffer er ikke løselige i vann, og binder seg ikke til vannmolekyler. Hydrogenbinding: En spesiell binding vi kan få mellom H-atomer bundet til F, O eller N i et molekyl og F, O eller N i et annet molekyl. Dette er de sterkeste av de svake bindingene vi kan få mellom molekyler, og spiller en stor rolle både i naturen og i byggingen av stoffer som proteiner, karbohydrater og nukleinsyrer. Hydrokarbon: Organiske stoffer som bare består av karbon og hydrogen. Hydroksylgruppe: Navnet på en OH-gruppe. Funksjonell gruppe for alkoholer. Hydroksysyre: En karboksylsyre som i tillegg inneholder en eller flere OH-grupper.

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Ikke-metall: Grunnstoffene som står mot høyre i det periodiske systemet. De mangler typiske metallegenskaper, som evne til å lede elektrisk strøm og varme, har ingen metallglans, har stort sett lav massetetthet og er elektronegative. Indeks: Det lille tallet som står ned til høyre for et kjemisk tegn. Det angir hvor mange atomer det er av grunnstoffet som det står etter. Indikator: Et stoff som brukes for å oppdage ekvivalenspunktet i en titrering. Indre energi: En form for potensiell energi i et kjemisk stoff som skyldes bindingsstyrken mellom atomene i stoffet. Ion: Et ladd atom eller en ladd atomgruppe. Ion, hydratisert: Et ion som er omgitt av vannmolekyler. Ion-dipolkrefter: Krefter som virker mellom en dipol og et ion. Ionebinding: Tiltrekningskrefter som virker mellom motsatt ladde ioner i et ionisk stoff. Ionebytter: Et stoff som kan ta opp ioner som vi ønsker å fjerne fra en løsning og bytter dem ut med andre ioner som finnes i ionebytteren. Ioneproduktet: Produktet av ionekonsentrasjonene i en løsning - mettet eller umettet. Ioneproduktet, vannets: Produktet av [H3O+] og [OH-] i en vandig løsning. Det betegnes med Kw, og har alltid verdien 1,0·10-14 (mol/L)2 ved 25 oC. Ioniseringsenergi: Den energien som må tilføres et atom for å fjerne ett elektron. Ionisk forbindelse: En forbindelse som er bygd opp av ioner (ofte salter).

IR-stråling: Stråling med lengre bølgelengde enn bølgelengden for rødt lys. IR står for InfraRødt. Isomeri: Det fenomenet at flere forbindelser kan ha samme molekylformel, men forskjellig strukturformel. Isomeri, optisk: Et annet navn på speilbildeisomeri. Isotoper: Atomer med samme antall protoner (samme grunnstoff), men ulikt antall nøytroner i kjernen.

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Jordalkalimetall: Et fellesnavn på atomene som står i hovedgruppe II (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra)

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Karboksylsyre: Et organisk stoff som har den funksjonelle gruppa
O C OH

Karbonylgruppa: En atomgruppe med strukturen som vist til høyre, er med i aldehyder, ketoner og karboksylsyrer.

O C

Katalysator: Et stoff som får en kjemisk...

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