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Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life. This can refer to genetic variation, species variation, or ecosystem variation within an area, biome, or planet. Terrestrial biodiversity tends to be highest at low latitudes near the equator, which seems to be the result of the warm climate and high primary productivity. Marine biodiversity tends to be highest along coasts in the Western Pacific, where sea surface temperature is highest and in mid-latitudinal band in all oceans. Biodiversity generally tends to cluster in hotspots, and has been increasing through time but will be likely to slow in the future.
Rapid environmental changes typically cause mass extinctions. One
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Explain how physical factors influence the distribution of biodiversity shown. (10)
Explain how physical factors influence the distribution of biodiversity shown. (10)
A factor which influences the distribution of biodiversity will be extreme climate. This is a limiting factor as it means that the species will need to be adapted to the environment, for example in the Antarctica this experiences extreme coldness, so the plants will need to be able to survive and grow in this or they will not last long. Also Antarctica experiences long periods of darkness so the plans will need to be able to survive without long periods of sun, or again they won’t be able to grow in this environment
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ENV 300 Environmental Science
June 15, 2015
All living organisms are present in ecosystems to coexist together to create biodiversity and without different species, these environment could fail horribly. Every living organism has a purpose in order to keep the balance of biodiversity. In order for there to be “biological diversity, these items are organized at many levels, ranging from complete ecosystems to the chemical structures that are the molecular basis of heredity” (1987). Not always in a friendly environmental manner, Human actions has played a big key role in the changing of the environment. A nonproductive planet would be result
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Biodiversity is the part of nature which includes the difference in genes among the individuals of a species, the variety and richness of all the plant and animal species at different scales in space, locally in a region, in the country and the world and various types of ecosystems, both terrestrial and aquatic within a defined area. Biodiversity deals with the degree of natureâ€™s variety in the biosphere.
Types of biodiversity
Genetic diversity -Â the genetic variability within a species.
Species diversity -Â the variety of species within a community
Ecosystem diversity -Â the organisation of species in an area into distinctive plant and animal communities
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Biology as a science concerned with living organisms, said organism’s function, origin, structure, and distribution is defined through numerous subdivisions and branches. Conservation biology is a branch, which deals with certain factors threatening biodiversity as well as the preservation of genetic and biologic diversity of animal and plant species. Threatened, endangered, and extinct species are only some factors that may influence biodiversity. Any given species has to meet a certain criteria to suit the previously named terms. Conservation biologists are concerned with numerous species because of said species’ influence on the interrelation within their
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appreciate the beneficial roles of termites besides condemning them for their destructive capability. This also caused me to realize that some organisms, despite being detrimental to the human society, can contribute to the ecosystem in a positive way.
Another insight I have gained from this practical was how human interference in the past can affect the biodiversity of the forest in the present. The forest that occupies Kent Ridge is a secondary forest called Adinandra belukar. “Belukar” means secondary forest and “Adinandra” refers to the dominant species, Tiup Tiup (Adinandra dumosa), that can be found in the forest. The forest has a lower diversity as compared to other forest. This is
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Biodiversity is the variety of all life forms on earth - the different plants, animals and micro-organisms and the ecosystems of which they are a part.
Biodiversity: the HUGE variety of other animals and plants on our planet, together with the places where found.
Natural heritage, an inheritance of fauna and flora, geology, landscape and landforms, and other natural resources
Our planet is simply amazing.
Viewed by someone not from our world, it could be seen as one big, finely tuned and ultimately incredible machine.
Lots of cogs, pulleys and wheels (animals, plants and environments) working together. Depending on each other in so many ways. Creating a green, blue healthy world
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3.1.1 Factors influencing biodiversity
Globally, biodiversity levels vary widely across land and oceans. Both physical and human factors influence levels of biodiversity and these factors operate at a variety of scales from local to global. Global physical factors such as variations in climate, play a major role in controlling the presence or absence of limiting factors, such as:
• Availability of light
• Nutrient supply
An absence of limiting factors leads to high levels of primary productivity and the energy produced leads to high levels of biodiversity. Conversely, where limiting factors are strongly evident, e.g. in cold temperatures such as
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Scientific Taxonomy and Earth’s Biodiversity
There are many forms of life that live on the Earth, which means the Earth is diverse. Most forms of life can be put into groups. Some groups would be the kingdom and the order. To be classified in a certain group, the species must consist of some of the same characteristics. All animals can be classified under the Animalia kingdom, which could also be called the Metazoa kingdom. In order to be classified in this kingdom the species must be multi-celled, eukaryotic, rely on other organisms for nourishment, some type of skeletal support, show levels of some type of organization, cells made for particular
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Why does Biodiversity vary so much between different scales?
Biodiversity can be defined in three different ways, such as genetic diversity, the number of different species and the range of different ecosystems within an area. Biodiversity is not spread evenly throughout the earth due to global factors, regional factors and local factors that affect biodiversity and cause it to be varied on such different scales. Human influences are also not to be forgotten. The overall consensus is that humans have a negative impact on biodiversity, and later in this report I will show why that is not always the case.
The global factors that affect how biodiverse areas are are the size of the area, the
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Cheetah- the cheetah is a mammal who belongs to the cat family. It is unique in its speed,
while lacking climbing abilities. It is the fastest animal.
Panda- the panda is a mammal who belongs to the bear family. Though belonging to the
order Carnivora, the Giant Panda has a diet which is 99% bamboo. The Giant Panda may eat
other foods such as honey, eggs, fish, yams, shrub leaves, oranges, and bananas when available.
Cheetahs are the fastest animal in the animalia family. Cheetahs do not like to share their
food. Cheetahâ€™s life span in the wild is only 12-14 years. The pandaâ€™s life span is 25-30 years.
The panda bear belongs to the order
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Biodiversity Hotspots and Conservation Priorities
Why conservation efforts should be prioritized to certain zones
A living fossil: Gymnocrinus richeri
The Diversity Of Life On Earth
Chapter VII: Biodiversity Hotspots and Conservation Priorities
Introduction Chapter VII: Biodiversity Hotspot and Conservation Priorities
Despite that biodiversity losses are occurring everywhere on Earth, some areas which are both extraordinarily rich in life forms and particularly threatened from a number of sources have been identified. As a general trend, equatorial and tropical zones have a particularly rich biodiversity when compared to the rest of the word. The colder it
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ECONOMICS OF BIODIVERSITY &
THE VALUE OF SPECIES:
HOW DO WE ALLOCATE FUNDS TO PROTECT DIVERSITY?
â€œEverything, whether measured in monetary or physical units, is amenable to economic reasoning provided it is scarce (or may become so in the future) and is appreciated by at least some members of the human community.â€ (Hampicke 1994: 219)
Economics and the environment are inextricably linked, as natural resources are the basis of production, manufacturing, and waste disposal. Conceivably the reason why economics is central to biodiversity conservation is because unless it makes definite economic and financial sense for people to conserve biodiversity, it is highly
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Arctic on the edge
Explain the levels of biodiversity found in the Arctic
â€¢ Extremely cold because of latitude
â€¢ Only a few animals survive the climate â€“ endemic species
â€¢ Lack of sunlight and plants means there is a low amount of energy in the food web. This energy canâ€™t support many species.
â€¢ Low precipitation in the polar desert.
â€¢ Geographical isolation and hostile climate.
â€¢ Lack of decomposition as the cold weather is unsuitable for microorganisms. Therefore, there are low nutrient levels in the soil.
Study Figure 9. Evaluate the contribution these options could make to a sustainable future in the Arctic.
Examine the possible actions
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; dolphins hard corals snails & clams giants clams nudibranchs (sea slug) sea stars sea cucumbers -450 types of corals -1500 types of fish -4000 types of molluscs -it covers over 35 million hectares -it is made up of over 2900 reefs and 900 islands and it began to grow over 18 million years ago Bairnsdale -Bairnsdale is a small town with the population of 11,800 -some of the special feature around Bairnsdale are; the church, Kmart, nagle college, the train station, the retender, Howard park/ all abilities park, Mitchell river -some of the wild life are; cats, dogs, kangaroos, koalas, wombats, guiene pigs, rabbits, bats, birds, magpies, owls, crows, foxes, goats, sheep, cows Biodiversity -Biodiversity is the interaction between living and non-living organisms their differences and how they relate to one another in their natural habitat. -Biodiversity is important to people in many ways. Plants, for instance, help humans by giving off oxygen. They also provide food, shade, shelter, medicines, and fibre for clothing and paper.
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the early stages of economic growth, it reaches a maximum and the trend reverses thereafter (Lee, Chung & Koo, 2005). This implies wealthier societies can reduce pollution level through advancing green technologies and sustainable practices. It is undisputed that in the pursuit of Singapore’s economic progression, the environment suffered irreversible damages. However, it remains arguable if Singapore and other developed nations such as the US, Japan and Australia follow the inverted relationship as they are ranked top polluters in the study, and thus to some extent questions the validity of the hypothesis.
b) Mitigation Hierarchy and Biodiversity Offset
The mitigation hierarchy is
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impact on the landscape and the natural environment. However, human activity does not necessarily mean loss of biodiversity and danger gypsum quarrying methods
Indeed, without human economic activity, Central Europe would nowadays almost be exclusively covered with forests. This type of habitat is not particularly favouring the uptake of many species as many herbaceous plants cannot live under the leafy canopy of the trees due to the lack of light. Those conditions would also have prevailed at gypsum locations with relatively shallow soils. But as small-scale farming emerged, numerous plant species were able to migrate to the open habitats and the number of species
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affects seaweed biodiversity as well. In a study conducted in Alaska on three different bays, the Torch Bay, Deer Harbor and the Surge Bay, it was found that the presence of sea otters led to a decrease in the population of sea urchins, which led to an increase in the population of seaweeds. In addition, it was also found that annual kelps predominated the areas where sea otters were present, and perennial kelps predominated in areas that had lesser sea otter populations (qtd. in “Interaction with kelps & sea otters”).
As is evident, sea otters are vital for maintenance of the kelp communities that are primary habitats of other coastal marine organisms, including fishes. Their absence
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IntroductionThe above article shows how Malaysian citizen do conservation on endangered species such as turtles. Prof Dr Saleem Mustafa as Borneo Marine Research Institute director commented that public awareness was important in complementing enforcement measures protecting the turtles. Nowadays, people whom face the busy lifestyle make them unaware of their surrounding and the extinction of endangered species such as sea turtles, whale, panda and many more. They neglect the existence of the endangered species and the effort in conserved them. As results the loss of one species can upset the balance of the environment and affect biodiversity which make a huge difference on a global
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future is by no means enshrined in good environmental ethics within the global society. The need for ethically based environmental decisions remains indisputable as increase in threats to human health and overall environment infringes future survival (Minteer, 2009, p.13). Penetration of environmental ethics underpins survival of global biodiversity and control over climate change. The witnessed decline in fresh water resources and the much feared clime change and increasing biodiversity loss are some of the ugly trends that are forcing the global community to deliberate the tenets leading to adoption of sustainable and ethically healthy environment in policy making.
The field of
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is irreplaceable and important to the ecosystem. Animal extinction affects the balance of ecosystems and upsets biodiversity. “ Biodiversity loss - it will make you sick” (Foster, 2013). Because biodiversity is one of the people’s precious resources. Medical research and education cannot normally proceed with biodiversity loss. It is well known that medical development depends on animal experiments or the research of animals. The world will lose some medical marvels because of animal extinction. For example, there is a kind of frogs which name are “gastric brooding frog”. The frogs could bring a new cure for peptic ulcers. However, the frogs died out . If some animals die out, they will not
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Base of cliff- reflect wave energy, block flooding effectively, ugly
Rocks in wire cages, absorb energy, effective, cheap, ugly
Rock/wood, 90® to beach, trap sediment, protect cliff from erosion, = other beach areas eroded, 20/30 yr. last
Rip Rap (rock armour)
Large rocks- absorb energy, effectively disperse waves + cheap, ugly
Beach material added= natural solution, keeps beauty, expensive, regular replenishment needed due to longshore drift
90%+ of the world's coastal life + water quality \/50% world pop. In 60km of coast - 75% by 2020Rich marine biodiversity- 50% affected by urban development- most within northern
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Greater efficiency of farming practices and production may also result in the preservation of areas that are not currently used for farming. For example, greater efficiency may lead to the less habitual destruction of rainforests. The farmland created from “the savannahs and tropical rainforests of Central and South America, Asia, and Africa by and large make poor farmland, but they are the earth’s storehouses of biodiversity, and the forests are the earth’s lungs” (Rauch 375). The increasing human population is directly responsible for the unnecessary loss of habitat and many species being displaced (ISAAA). Therefore, to “conserve forests, habitats and biodiversity, it is
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The eco and customer friendly company.
Table of Contents
The Natura Concept: 3
Production and Operation: 6
Social Responsibility: 6
Natura, a Brazilian based company was founded in 1969, by Luiz Seabra and later partnered with Guilherme Leal and Pedro Pasos. Today, as a public company since 2004, Natura is a leading manufacture and marketer in the skin care, solar filters, cosmetics, perfume, and hair products (Natura). Natura sold in Latin America and France is looking to enter the U.S. markets once they stabilize after the recession (Azevedo
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change overall. Animals, however, are not. When their habitats change irrevocably — when the rain forest dries up or cool mountains in tropical zones heat up — animals may simply go extinct. A recent data tells that from nearly 2,000 species of plants, insects and fungi in the tropics, where organisms often lack the ability to escape warming temperatures by going north or south; instead, they have to go up in elevation to find cooler temperatures. As populations in lowland areas move up, they tend not to be replaced. That means that we may see a reduction in overall biodiversity and what scientists call "species richness." Meanwhile, species that already live at the highest elevations have
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The earth is considered one of the most beautiful planets in the universe. It is the only planet in the galaxy that has enough water to support life. Unfortunately, the planet is suffering due to many environmental problems that may affect people, societies, and ecosystems. These problems can result in major consequences for everyone’s daily life. The major environmental problems that are facing the world today are deforestation, global warming, and water pollution.
The decimation of Earth’s forest is one of the most serious global environmental problems (Paul and Anne 162). Deforestation can affect biodiversity, the atmosphere, and land. The loss of forest means
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I don't want the panda to die out. I want species to stay alive – that's why I get up in the morning. I don't even kill mosquitoes or flies. So if pandas can survive, that would be great. But let's face it: conservation, both nationally and globally, has a limited amount of resources, and I think we're going to have to make some hard, pragmatic choices.
The truth is, pandas are extraordinarily expensive to keep going. We spend millions and millions of pounds on pretty much this one species, and a few others, when we know that the best thing we could do would be to look after the world's biodiversity hotspots with greater care. Without habitat, you've got nothing. So maybe if we took all
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environmental and economic benefits of farming, organic and conventional farming in Uganda are examined using the following criteria: land sustainability and the production costs. (18.73)
Organic farming works to increase sustainability of land and biodiversity (Fuller et al., 2005). This is through practices like crop rotation and the use of compost and biological pest control methods (Fuller et al., 2005). These encourage good soil and reduce soil erosion through avoidance of harmful chemicals with the use of natural farming practice (Fuller et al., 2005). Most societies in Uganda practice this way of farming because it doesnâ€™t exhaust the soil (UNEP, n.d). (10.08)
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indicate the tie back to our environment within the discussion. In areas where there are already soil disturbances, garlic mustard has an easy invasive passage as a non-native species. These intensely disturbed regions more commonly support non-mycorrhizal plant species which contribute to the reduction of soil inoculums levels important to the development of mycorrhizal species. This slows the rate of production of future mycorrhizal species, as well as reduces biodiversity within invaded regions. This is due to species inability to develop in the low MIP regions. The mustard also has compounds dominant to those of many other species, making their reproduction even more slowed. The garlic
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, releasing oxygen into the atmosphere while storing carbon dioxide. Thousands of activities were organized worldwide, with beach clean-ups, concerts, exhibits, film festivals, community events and much more.This year's global host,India - a country of wide biodiversity.
 Theme 2010
'Many Species. One Planet. One Future', was the theme of 2010. . It celebrated the incredible diversity of life on Earth as part of the 2010 International Year of Biodiversity. This year's global host, Rwanda – a country of exceptional biodiversity that has made huge strides on environmental protection – leaded the celebrations with three days of keynote events.
Thousands of activities were organized
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Natural resources (economically referred to as land or raw materials) occur naturally within environments that exist relatively undisturbed by mankind, in a natural form. A natural resource is often characterized by amounts of biodiversity existent in various ecosystems. Natural resources are derived from the environment. This is currently restricted to the environment of Earth yet the theoretical possibility remains of extracting them from outside the planet, such as the asteroid belt. Many of them are essential for our survival while others are used for satisfying our wants. Natural resources may be further classified in different ways
On the basis of origin, resources may be
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global network of protected areas will be around USD 50 billion per year and the top 25 World Biodiversity Hotspots require USD 500 million per year (Gossling, S; 2002). As the revenue from government is insufficient, the protected areas are in the need of ecotourism for generating sufficient income to meet their maintenance costs in order to achieve financial sustainability. Western Ghats, in India, is one of the biodiversity hotspots in the world which is home for endemic plants and endangered animals. This backbone, the 1600 km long mountain range is considered as the principal ecotourism site in the country.
Ecotourism in Kerala
Forest with its endemic plants and majestic animals
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Expansion of the protected area network
maintaining viable populations of species, whether plant or animal, is a crucial factor in biodiversity conservation and this requires the appropriate conservation of important ecosystems and habitats. Currently, the country has 88 national parks, and 490 sanctuaries. In 1988, Rodgers and Panwar conducted a comprehensive study in which they drew up plans for a protected area network to cover the range of biological diversity in the country. They suggested that the percentage of the country's area under the protected area network, which was then only 3.3%, be enhanced to 4.6%. The recent update of the Rodgers and Panwar
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Effect of the natural environment from the construction industry
Task 1 (p1)
Features of the natural environment that could be affected:
• Air quality
• Ozone layer
• Soil quality and natural drainage
• Land scape
• Land use
• Green belt
• Country side
• Water resources
• Water quality
• Marine environment
• Natural resources
• Natural habitat
The air quality will suffer as a result of construction works. Combustible pollutants are compounds produced by burning fuel. For example on a construction site, petrol and diesel engines would be used, which produce exhaust gases that pollute and
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In the 20th century, the industrial nations were devoted to satisfying our ever-growing consumer needs. To do so, they extracted and processed extensive natural resources. Today, we know that these resources are limited and that extractive and manufacturing activities are responsible for our major pollution problems: water pollution, global warming due to greenhouse gases, soil contamination and erosion, ecosystem degradation and loss of biodiversity. Part of the solution to these problems is sound residual materials management. Recovering useful materials and recycling them back into the production stream generally has the same effect as source reduction, namely, reducing the need for
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hotel guest, to conservation work. These donations have been useful in supporting NGO conservation work in the Seychelles, especially in turtle and wetland conservation. Fregate Island Resort, which boasts an exclusive privately owned island to its guests financially, supports its own conservation staff and resources to maintain the unique biodiversity of the island. Such efforts have contributed to the removal of a highly threatened endemic bird from conservation priority lists.
Island restoration and eradication of rats have also improved the value of biodiversity, by restoring biodiversity services and removing biodiversity threats such as invasive plants and mammals.
Every day we
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leading to many disasters like floods, droughts and cyclone among others. Excessive use of Energy: Leading to increased building of hydel dams, thermal and nuclear plants, which can cause environmental problems like global warming, depletion of forests and biodiversity, pollution of water bodies and land masses, radiation damage and the displacement of people in large scale. Waste Generation: The processes have been producing wastes – gaseous, liquid and solid – that are discharged into the environment, causing damages to people, animals and vegetation. Burning of fossil fuels can cause much air pollution. Global Warming: Increasing concentration of carbon dioxide and methane (Green house
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the international agencies that withdrew aid following the coup, little to nothing has been done to stop the carnage. The impact of illegal logging of precious woods on many forest sites, including the world heritage site of Atsinanana, is devastating for biodiversity, for livelihoods and for the world, as we continue to lose the unique biodiversity of the island of Madagascar. About 52,000 tons of precious wood from 100,000 trees estimated to been cut in 2009 alone,(Science 1990) possibly covering 20,000 hectares within the parks. An additional 500,000 trees probably felled to help raft the heavy trees downstream, according to WWF illegal logging (precious woods) from Madagascar enter
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predictions for beaches like Bondi. If this occurs at Bondi, said Professor Peter Cowell, erosion could extend up to 70 metres inland from the promenade, despite recent efforts by Waverley Council to reinforce the toe of the seawall.
Human activities - have also reduced the biodiversity of our coastlines, which helps them to maintain their health. Small organisms in coastal ecosystems are often the first link in large food chains. The impact of their population reduction or extinction inevitably reverberates throughout the entire chain. The most significant ways in which humans have impacted upon Australia's coastline are outlined below.
Housing and development - The construction of
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creatures will make big impact on biological life on Earth.â€ Although global warming has helped reduce some diseases related to cold weather, it can harm biological life more as evident on the malaria exposure brought on by mosquito inhabitance in Mt.Kenya. According to the article, â€œThe Role of Climatic Change in the Evolution of Mammals,â€ if climate changes â€œso fast that evolutionary adaptations simply cannot keep upâ€¦ the fate for populations that experience such an effect is extinction.â€ That is, global warming probably adversely affects biodiversity on the earth. â€œExtinctions may so far outweigh evolutionary additions to biodiversity that our grandchildren will live in a much
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first on the agenda. The environmental problems have already waited a long time for their turn. Among them there are air and water pollution, inefficient use of natural resources, oil spills and so on. Environmental problems of sub-Saharan Africa also include air and water pollution, deforestation, loss of soil and soil fertility, and a dramatic decline in biodiversity throughout the region. nest paragraphs will face the problems in more details.
It is quite understandable that the environmental problems in Sub-Sahar region are crucial and severe. The most compelling problem in Sub-Saharan Africa is that it has one of the worlds fastest growing populations (approximately 2.2% a year
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leading to a multitude of environmental issues.
Biodiversity in the agricultural fields is like a thing of the past with many local species like insectivorous birds such as drongo, bee-eater, even the house sparrow becoming rare or locally extinct, indicating the collapse of the entire food webs of the farm land.
In the forestry sector, fortunately the use of pesticides has been much less. However, the aerial
spraying of pesticides in India was first tried in Kerala in 1965 to control the teak defoliators in
Konni forest division. It was noted that with in 48 hours nearly 162 non-target species of
arthropods were knocked down.
As a result of all these â€œmodernâ€ techniques, the
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fuels. Heidelberg Cement has also been active in the promotion of biodiversity at its various extraction sites.
In order to understand the life cycle of cement production it would be important to know how cement is produced. Cement is a manmade powdery material, created through a complex process, which reacts with water to produce strength-bearing structures made mainly from concrete. Concrete is made from a mixture of aggregates, water and cement which accounts for its strength and durability and makes it one of the most useful materials developed by man. The chemical and mineral components of cement consist of Silica (SiO2), lime (CaO), oxides of aluminum and iron (Al2O3and Fe2O3) blended
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United States, the herb was marketed as a dietary aid, whose over dosage led to at least a dozen deaths, heart attacks and strokes.
In Belgium, at least 70 people required renal transplant or dialysis for interstitial fibrosis of the kidney after taking a herbal preparation made from the wrong species of plant as slimming treatment.
Biodiversity and sustainability
In addition to patient safety issues, there is the risk that a growing herbal market and its great commercial benefit might pose a threat to biodiversity through the over harvesting of the raw material for herbal medicines and other natural health care products. These practices, if not controlled, may lead to the extinction of
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* 4 ways a newcomer may impact local biodiversity:
* Easiest to detect and quantify
* Greatest threat to natives
* E.g. decline of water vole (Arvicola terrestris) attributed to accidental introduction of American mink (escaped from fur industry); impact also exacerbated by agricultural conversion (loss of good quality riparian habitats)
* Water vole reintroduction projects assessed relative impacts of mink predation and habitat quality on survival of released water voles mink control most important determinant of success; where control successful, habitat quality determined survival rates
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trees. Such substances also wash away in the runoff and are carried into streams, rivers, and lakes. More of these substances are released from the soil when the rainfall is more acidic.The ecological effects of acid rain are most clearly seen in the aquatic, or water, environments, such as streams, lakes, and marshes. Acid rain can cause a number of effects that harm or kill individual fish, reduce fish population numbers, completely eliminate fish species from a waterbody and decrease biodiversity. As acid rain flows through soils in a watershed, aluminum is released from soils into the lakes and streams located in that watershed. As the pH level in a lake or stream decreases, aluminum levels
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to external stimuli such as light, water, temperature, pollutants etc.
13 All living organisms are aware of their surroundings. Human beings are the only organism who is aware of himself ie has self consciousness. Consciusness is a defining feature of all living organisms.
DIVERSITY IN THE LIVING WORLD
14The number of species that are known and described range between 1.7 to 1.8 million. Biodiversity is the number and type of organisms present on the earth.
14 There is a need to standardize the naming of living organisms such that a particular organisms is known by a single name. This process is known as nomenclature.
15 Nomenclature or naming is possible when organisms are
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concerning the maintenance is that weeds do not grow on vertical surfaces.
Not to be overlooked, one of the main aspects of vegetal walls is its impact on the environment and society. Indeed, the introduction of vegetal walls on cities' concrete is a refuge of biodiversity in cities and a big step towards the protection of the environment. People have been since long complaining about the lack of vegetation in cities and political responses have often included arguments concerning the lack of space. Vegetal walls get rid of that problem since they exploit places where no man had thought vegetation possible. Also, Patrick Blanc's vegetal walls have been considered as art pieces by many
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5. A flexible manufacturing system (FMS) is a manufacturing system in which there is some amount of flexibility that allows the system to react in case of changes, whether predicted or unpredicted. This flexibility is generally considered to fall into two categories, which both contain numerous subcategories.
6. The three factors in the facility location decision are: Transportation, physical and human factors. Businesses most affected by each facility location factors are mostly small businesses such as: grocery stores, fast food delivery services, outlets, corner stores, resturants and privately owned recreation centers.
7. Physical variables involve such issues as water supply
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fire happen cause of natural, human factors are the main and root factor of forest fires directly or indirectly (Nicholas, 2002). Applegate, G. in CIFOR (2001), states that there are differences in understanding the underlying causes of the fire. For example, forestry department the shifting cultivators as a cause of forest fires in Indonesia, on the other hand, the environmentalists said that the fires were the result of poor forest management, where environmental organizations blame the logging companies and plantations.
Forest Fire in Indonesia
Forest is a natural resource that is extraordinary valuable and it contains biodiversity as a source of germ plasma, timber and