Decision theory Essay Examples

Free Essays

check point decision making process Essay

370 words - 2 pages Checkpoint 1 - Decision-Making ProcessBy: Lori Settles, lori_settles@yahoo.comFor: Management Theory and PracticeTeacher: Carl Van DomelenThe decision I had to make was to leave my husband or stay in the abusive relationship. I decided to leave and take my children with me. When making this decision the first step I took was writing down the pros and the cons of staying and of leaving. The second step I took was talking to a friend that was a cop at the time. The third step I took was writing a letter telling him why we left and detailed what he shouldn't do, because I got a restraining order on him. My decision-making process was similar to evaluating alternatives, contingency plans and VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

Motivation Theories Paper

1228 words - 5 pages individual believe something about his or her self and do somethingagainst that belief. The discomfort of this theory often feels like a tension that lies between twoopposing thoughts. Dissonance is most powerful when Foolish feelings and immorality cloudthe internal projections during decision-making. These are all dissonance in action. When anaction is completed and cannot be undone, then the individual is compel to change his or herbeliefs in an after the fact dissonance. If beliefs are moved, then the dissonance appears duringdecision-making, forcing the individual to take actions he or she would not have taken before.Virtually, Cognitive Dissonance in all evaluations and decisions is a central VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

Capital Structure (D/E) Differs Substantially From One Company/Industry To Another. Can Theories Of Capital Structure Shed Light On This?

1052 words - 5 pages Capital structure refers to the proportion of financing from debt and from equity capital (D/E ratio). An efficient mixture of capital reduces the price of capital. Lowering the cost of capital increases net economic returns, which, ultimately, increases firm value. There are a number of theories that explain capital structure, namely, M&M, Static Trade-off Theory and the Pecking Order Theory.M&M theory assumes that the market is in a perfect capital market status as no transaction or bankruptcy costs, asymmetric information flow, firms and individuals can borrow at the same interest rate, no taxes and investment decisions are not affected by financing decision. All these assumption VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

The Link Between Utilitarianism And Democracy

361 words - 2 pages What is the link between Utilitarianism and Democracy?Utilitarianism (from the Latin utilis, useful) is a theory of ethics based on quantitative maximization of some good for society or humanity. It is a form of consequentialism. This good is often happiness or pleasure, though some utilitarian theories might seek to maximize other consequences. Utilitarianism is sometimes summarized as "The greatest happiness for the greatest number." Although it is a standalone theory of ethics, it bares a many similarities to the controversial an extremely popular concept of Democracy.The literal meaning of the word "democracy" is "power of the people". In practice it usually means a method of decision VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

What Do Probability Judgements And Jury Reasoning Tell Us About The Role Of Mental Models In Decision Making?

1452 words - 6 pages situations which acquire certain reasoning skills.However, having said that mental models are highly influential in the way we reason as they lead individuals to formulate decisions based on evidence and not alternate situations. The theory of decision making suggests that an individual can produce a more accurate decision when reasoning based on facts.In conclusion we can clearly state that mental models employed in probability judgements and jury reasoning inform us that when individuals are placed within a certain group (e.g. jurors) where they experience similar mental models, decisions are easily formulated. Therefore leading them to a more accurate and reasonable verdict. Whereas if the VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

Utilitarianism Essay

1171 words - 5 pages . And so, the theory seems to be very broad and general, easy to grasp and it seems like it would be good to use in every situation. We will see if this is true or not later down the road (no pun intended). If no actions are considered right or wrong in the theory, how can one decide what action to take? Well, you would have to think about the outcome and make your decision from there. You would think about things such as, "how will this affect me, how will it affect those around me". you would have to decide from your prior knowledge of the world around you. You would determine all of the reasonable alternatives to the action and then compare them all to see which one would provide the VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

Differences In Leadership Practices Essay

6028 words - 25 pages Leadership Studies, OhioUniversity Press.Shea, M. (1990). Leadership Rules. London: Century.Spohn, M. (2002). Organization and LeadershipTheory: An Evolutionary PsychologyPerspective. Journal of Evolutionary Psychology, Vol. 26.Vroom, V.H. and Jago, A.G. (1988). The New Leadership. Managing Participation inOrganizations. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.Vroom, V.H and Yetton, P. W. (1973). Leadership and Decision-Making. Pittsburgh:University of Pittsburgh Press.Weber, M. (1947). The Theory of Social and Economic Organization. Free Press.Yukl, G. (2002). Leadership in organizations. 5th Edition. Upper Saddle River, NewJersey: Prentice-Hall. VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

Critical Thinking And Perception Essay

365 words - 2 pages Skillful decision making starts with a decisive and tactical thought process. Many sources characterize critical thinking as the ability to direct one's thinking. Critical thinking includes the capability to evaluate the premises of one's reasoning, and/or the interpretation of another viewpoint. It also involves the controlled assessment of information sources. There is no authoritative classification of critical thinking though.The essential theory of critical thinking is, at the core, very straightforward. It can be defined as the talent of taking charge of your mind and thoughts. If one can take charge of his or her mind, they can take charge of their lives. This requires the learning VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

Existentialism Essay

309 words - 2 pages Existentialism is in essence a belief that the world we live in is fundamentally meaningless and absurd. A philosophical theory or approach that emphasizes the existence of the individual person as a free and responsible agent determining their own development through acts of the will. Existentialism believes that individuals are entirely free and must take personal responsibility for themselves (although with this responsibility comes angst, a profound anguish or dread). It therefore emphasizes action, freedom and decision as fundamental, and holds that the only way to rise above the essentially absurd condition of humanity (which is characterized by suffering and inevitable death) is by VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

Economics Essay

781 words - 4 pages a simplified description of reality. The economic theory helps to understand the economic systems which is the combination of social and individual decision making it uses to answer the three economic questions. Economist use an ideological tool called a budget constraint which is the mixture of goods that can be acquired although it is given a limited amount of income . As person goes through life they will make economic decisions as a consumer , as a worker, and as a citizen which will make an understanding of economic theory a important part of everyday life.Countries such as the United States use a variance of approaches in order to answer the basic economic questions. Market economy are VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

Book Review With Use Of Sociological Theories Of: Ain't No Makin'It: Aspirations & Attainment In A Low-Income Neighborhood By Jay MacLeod

1916 words - 8 pages times you may find minorities with the pessimistic views of the Hallway Hangers.The mothers of the Hallway Hangers had little or no education with the exception of one mother who had a high school education. Families of the boys were not employed and depended on aid from the government or committed unlawful acts to survive and make ends meet. They did not have support from their families, and it appeared that the mothers did not enforce school attendance. The Hallway Hangers made the decision to place blame on others for their misfortunes.Merton's Strain theory suggests that poverty causes crime. As explained by www.homestead.com "Strain is understood in two ways: social processes and VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

Profits Through Financial Markets

4284 words - 18 pages . Also, because all investors are interested in stocks trading, they do not quit the experiment before it is completed. Mortality may be occurred by death. Because it cannot be measured as the pre-conditions of the treatment, there is not testing effect.Most apparent and significant problem may be selection effect. Because, some participants may have more analytical skills that can effect the group's average performance. This may be surpassed by randomization.REFERENCESBator, Francis. 1958. The Anatomy of Market Failure. Quarterly Journal of EconomicsLXXII, 351-379.Donahue, John D. 1991. The Privatization Decision. New York, NY: Basic Books.Frederickson, H. George 1991. Toward a Theory of the VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

Is A Top-Down Approach More Effective In Achieving Conservation?

654 words - 3 pages A top-down approach in resource management is that which aims to control the use of a particular resource through state structured apparatus that have ultimate control in the decision making process. This power 'trickles down' the different levels of stakeholders leaving those at the bottom with little or no say in the outcome of the particular resource use. This approach was widely used in the colonial periods in places like Africa and Latin America. The main strengths of a top-down approach include:1. The ability to use resources more wisely avoiding local 'ignorance' in the management of a particular resource2. The availability of social, economic and political capital in managing a VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

Compare And Critically Evaluate Contending Conceptions Of 'Power' With Reference To: &Middot;<Tab/>Stop The War Coalition

1783 words - 8 pages When looking at this title we have to understand that there is more than one conception of power, in the World today. In fact, people may have very differing views on what they conceive to be power. In essence there are three basic arguments, which have been put forward in the past hundred years when trying too define political power. The first view is that of Dahl (1961 and 1968), where power is seen in decision-making and those that help cement the final decisions are seen as the holders of power. Bachrach and Baratz (1962), though, take this theory a stage further and in essence come up with an idea that power is not just about the decisions that are made but the planning / agenda VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

What Is The Current State Of McGregor's Theory X And Y In Industry? Do Most Employees Fall Within X? Y? Are There Any Other Theories That Offer Alternative Arguments About The Nature O Employees?

869 words - 4 pages What is the current state of McGregor's theory X and Y in industry? Do most employees fall within X? Y? Are there any other theories that offer alternative arguments about the nature o employees? What does your company do to address both Xers and Yers?I believe that Theory Y is the most predominately used method of management. This theory has gone through a few transformations since McGregor first wrote about his X and Y theories in the early 60's. I think that companies have realized that managing people like robots does not promote a sense of ownership among employees and eventually diminishes work production. The employees in an X theory employment situation work only for the salary and VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

Current Event Assignment "Study: Stay-at-home moms deserve high pay."

403 words - 2 pages general maintenance worker. The motive behind this article is to disprove the theory that stay at home moms are a "cop-out" and it's the "women's way out of the work force". It also brings attention to how difficult raising a child is as well as taking care of the house.Personally, I was very interested in learning how much a stay-at-home mom would make if they received a paycheck. Along with the majority I assumed that staying home would be easier than going into the work field and made the decision earlier on that I wouldn't do it. I would still not choose to stay at home if given the opportunity, but nonetheless I can now give more credit to those who do.Vocabulary:Hypothetical- Of, relating VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

M Crichton

465 words - 2 pages siblings to get published, the New York Times published an article of his when he was 14. He was very happy with that, that he decided he wanted to write the rest of his life. In high school Crichton was a basketball player, he was 6'7" in the tenth grade. He graduated from Roslyn High School in 1960. He then decided to go to Harvard University and become a writer. At Harvard, his writings were critisized and he received poor grades. He decided that it was harvard, not him, that was the problem. To prove his theory he retyped a paper by George Orwell and turned it in. The paper was given a b-, so Crichton was convinced Harvard was too hard for him and changed his major to anthropology VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

Crime Is A Social Construct

1936 words - 8 pages of moral regulations within society. If the aspirations held by individuals and groups in society do not coincide with the available rewards, this disparity between desires and fulfilment will be felt in the deviant motivations of some of its members. This was the basis for Merton's Anomie theory. (Robert Merton 1957)Emile Durkheim saw crime and deviance as social factors and believed both of them to be inevitable and necessary elements in modern society. The people in that society are less constrained than in traditional times. There is more room for the individual choice in a modern world and it is therefore inevitable that there will be some non-conformity. Durkheim recognises that no VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

These Are Notes From A Industrial/Organizational Psychology Class Including Many Key Factors For A General Understanding Of I/O Psychology

5477 words - 22 pages fulfil the taskdisadvantages:-decision-making process longer-limited time-frame except creative team-effectivity depends nature of the problem-work overload-> if you do your usual work besidesChapter 3 Research methods:Research Process:-Statement of the problem (question that initiate research)oInductive... from data to theoryoDeductive...from theory to data-design of the research studyofactors: naturalness of setting, degree of controloprimary and secondary research methods-measurement of variablesoindependent, actual, predictorsodependent, conceptual, criterion-analysis of dataobell- shaped curveonegative, positive skewomean, median, mode, standard deviation-conclusionsocorrelation2.1 VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

Working With People And Teams

7649 words - 31 pages unions on employee attitudes and behaviour; overestimates the motivation, the desire to participate in decision making, and the occupational self-awareness of many employees. Not everyone wants to exercise initiative or to control their work. Indeed, many people have little idea of what they actually expect or desire from the employment experience and thus welcome directions imposed by a higher level of authority; focuses on attention on the influence of small groups while neglecting the effects of the wider social structures within which groups are embedded.A useful starting point for self-actualisation concept of motivation is the work of Maslow, and his theory of individual development and VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

Brand Loyalty

6615 words - 27 pages factors which are acknowledged from previous studies. Studies indicate that these ten factors are accountable for brand female loyalty in cosmetic products. Those factors are perceived quality, promotion, price, expiry date, purchase decision, store environment, brand name, product quality, ingredients and design. It is a basic and a structured questionnaire was develop to collect data. The populations of the study were all the female consumers of Peshawar Pakistan. On convenient basis 110 female consumers of three major areas of Peshawar Pakistan were targeted. The statistical part of analysis is based on descriptive statistic, Correlation and regression analysis. Results were conducted VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

Theories Of Motivation In The Workplace: Meg Whitman

2512 words - 11 pages Meg WhitmanIntroductionMeg Whitman is not the typical success story that people turn to when they need motivation. She did not have to overcome a horrible childhood or face a life threatening disease, there were no devastating setbacks or traumatic experiences that shaped her life. Instead, she has led a very impressive life marked by one good decision after another. Hers is not a story of an underdog but instead a brilliant display of the power of motivation. Meg grew up in an upper-class waterfront community near Long Island, New York with two older siblings, a successful father and a stay-at-home mother. She graduated high school one year early and in the top ten percent of her class VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

Social And Cultural Anthropology: What Defines And Justifies The Study Of The Discipline

1840 words - 8 pages Anthropology, the comparative study of cultural variation through the myths, ritual, kinship patterns, political and economic systems in particular societies or social groups. In this paper I will attempt to define what is anthropology in general but mainly look at the background and development of Social and Cultural Anthropology and its relevance to the modern world, in addition to considering how students of anthropology develop such varied skills as critical thinking, writing and communicating, decision-making, all well suited to the 21st Century job market.History and background.The etymology of the word derives from the Greek, anthropos: human and logos: reason, thus it would mean knowledge VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

AI

1240 words - 5 pages Work on AI began in the 1950's with researchers wanting to use a computer to model the way a human thinks. This new field quickly took off, but had difficulties due to the inability to produce anything that really resembled human intelligence.Artificial intelligence is defined as the ability of a machine to think for itself.Scientists and theorists continue to debate if computers will actually be able to think for themselves at one point (Liebowitz). The generally accepted theory is that computers will think and do more in the future. AI has grown rapidly in the last ten years chiefly because of the advances in computer architecture. The term artificial intelligence was actually coined in VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

AI

1240 words - 5 pages Work on AI began in the 1950's with researchers wanting to use a computer to model the way a human thinks. This new field quickly took off, but had difficulties due to the inability to produce anything that really resembled human intelligence. Artificial intelligence is defined as the ability of a machine to think for itself.Scientists and theorists continue to debate if computers will actually be able to think for themselves at one point (Liebowitz). The generally accepted theory is that computers will think and do more in the future. AI has grown rapidly in the last ten years chiefly because of the advances in computer architecture. The term artificial intelligence was VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

"Prelude To Foundation" By Isaac Asimov

945 words - 4 pages most important and secret advisor of Cleon, insists on the capture of Seldon. Seldon comes, and Cleon asks for Seldon to tell him his future. Seldon explains to him that psychohistory is only a theory saying it is only possible to tell the future but, due to the infinite complexity of the Empire, not practical. Cleon, disappointed with the results of his short meeting with Hari Seldon, decides to let him go. Seldon leaves, regretting the speech he gave at the Decennial Convention. But Demerzel is unhappy with this decision and decides to go back after Seldon himself, knowing the danger of the mathematician in someone else?s service. He knows that He sits next to him on a bench, under the VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

Teenage Use Of Drugs

932 words - 4 pages teenagers in every hundred.Heroin, cocaine, ecstasy - tried at least once by three teenagers in every hundred.Many parents are concerned that if their child tries marijuana, it will only be a matter of time before they progress to harder drugs, such as heroin. The theory that soft drug use automatically leads to the use of harder drugs is one of the main reasons why marijuana remains an illegal substance. However, there is no evidence to support this theory. The majority of teenagers who smoke marijuana will never become hard drug users.How to prevent drug useThere are no parenting skills or behaviors that guarantee a child will never touch drugs. However, parents and guardians can reduce the VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

The European Union

2426 words - 10 pages technocrats in the duller reaches of economic policy could provide. Keeping the citizens of Europe involved by increasing the voting power they have and making the text of the Union's documents more reader friendly is a major goal and crucial part of the Constitution.[5: R. Belllamy & Schoenlau in Political Theory and the European Constitution, eds. L. Dobson & R. Follesdal (London & New York: Routledge, 2004), 57. ]The EU has grown from a mere six countries to a whopping 28 in approximately 50 years. With the enlargement of the EU, drastic changes are necessary to help streamline decision-making procedures and make them more efficient. The Constitution would make changes to VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

Sweatshops: Development Or Decrease?

1281 words - 6 pages on this premise as many sweatshops should be created and maintained.There are several reasons as to why these premises do not hold true. First off, it is not always true that the employees make an educated decision to work in these sweatshops. Higher wages are not always guaranteed since MNCs outsource to a developing country only so they can take advantage of the low standard of living and a low minimum wage as compared to their home country. It is morally impermissible to subject employees to such grueling, mind-numbing tasks for long periods of time irrespective of what culture the corporation is functioning in.Basic human rights are common to all people and putting a person's health and VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

An Academic Without Religions

1056 words - 5 pages for human, which not only helps to push the history to roll forth but also keeps us morally and ethically right, however, only if man does not rely on religions too much and even fanaticized to it.The best example, also the most obvious victim of overwhelming religions is, no doubt, academia, which decides our education, our children, and most important-human's future. I still remember the story of an innocent biography teacher prosecuted for propagating Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, the most significant scientific achievement in man's history and the permanent truth existing long before human was born. He was convicted guilty because of respecting academia, because of telling the VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

Should An Organisations Engage In CSR?

1447 words - 6 pages of CSRSome say business has economic responsibility to make profit while obeying the law (economic CSR), others say corporate management should be sensitive to social impact of their decision and the potential effect to stakeholders (ethical CSR) and others want corporations involved in social activities even if it costs them money (altruistic CSR) (Lantos, 2001).Economic CSR (The pure profit making view)The purpose of business is to produce product at a profit within the accepted rules despite the low standards of ethics, i.e. economics with obeying the law (Carr, 1996 cited in Lantos, 2001).Friedman supports this view, "The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits" and VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

"Examine The Relevance Of MBA Studies To Management Effectiveness"

2041 words - 9 pages value of management qualifications like the Masters the key concerns identified with the programme was the assessment quality of the Masters programme together with the practical approach to the MBA programme. As Baruch and Leeming (2001) stated obtaining a Masters qualification will add value if the programme achieves the aim that it has been designed for which is to train managers to be effective decision makers enhance their managerial skills. The challenge ahead is to bridge the gap between theory and practice. Tannenbaum and Yuki 1992 recommend that while course design and the learners motivations are important so too is the role of the employer in ensuring a sufficient level of VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

The Philosophy Of Life

1920 words - 8 pages of humanity. One primary focal point that has been thought over by numerous philosophers is what exactly constitutes knowledge. This can be witnessed by the many different epistemological theories put forward throughout the ages. Everyone has his or her own theory of what constitutes knowledge. I do not think that anyone can ever know anything for certain. I believe that we can sense certain sights, smells, and sounds but our senses can be mistaken. We are let down by our senses all of the time. For example, we see optical illusions, mirages, we mishear people, and we confuse scents. Also if you think about all of the senses that we are lacking that other species have, we are missing out on VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

History Of Industrial Democracy

3050 words - 13 pages securing a co-operative effort between management and employees.In the 1970s organisations, employees, and governments recognised the need to integrate workforce in the decision-making processes. The objective for the organisations to do so had two aspects. First they had to provide the workforce with meaningful and satisfactory work environment, thus adding a social function to the organisation. The second aspect, mainly seen from the management point of view, was that they hoped, by integrating workforce in the decision-making, it would motivate efficiency and commitment to the organisation. The labour governments during that time supported these notions while favouring direct legislative VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

ERP Implementation Failure

5343 words - 22 pages automation, effectiveness and efficiency in operations and real-time data are important factors for business success. The provision of timely information improves the decision-making process, planning and control of ERP adopters. Consequently, higher effectiveness and efficiency in operations and improved customer satisfaction are the ultimate benefits derived from ERP systems (Gupta, 2000).ERP systems evolved from advanced manufacturing technologies (AMT) both of which were developed as a response to the increasingly competitive environment. In particular, their purpose has been to increase quality, lower inventory levels and enhance customer service mainly via improved manufacturing flexibility VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

Postmodernism

2067 words - 9 pages radical separation of personal and professional ethical behavior. One is always a human being, irrespective of whether one acts as a corporate agent or sometimes as a selfinterested private agent. Thus, the same ethical litmus tests should apply for decision making on behalf of the family household as well as the business organization in which the individual is employed.2.No abstracted ethics in a vacuum: Postmodern business ethicists rely on a narrative approach instead of an abstract theory. In other words, a postmodern ethic considers the entire worldview of a person and thinks of business as an integral part of the way one looks at all of life. Ethics proceeds by analogies rather than by VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

External/Internal Factors

1715 words - 7 pages achieved. One is the willingness of a manager to let go of the task or to delegate. Many managers have been through the seminars that speak of the how to, but putting delegation into practice is more than theory. Vicky Sanderson (2004) wrote about several business managers who worked through the adjustments of delegation. The average manager spends 45 per cent of his or her time on a task that should have been delegated. Some managers have guilt to deal with while others seem unable to find anyone he or she believes can be trusted to do the job right. Some managers use the reasoning, they must understand the job before they can delegate.10 steps to successful delegating are listed by VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

Foundations Of Psychology

1239 words - 5 pages ; Weston (2011) Structuralism emerged as the first school of thought and some of the ideas associated with the structuralist school. This school of thought focuses on breaking down mental processes into the most basic components and studies individual's consciousness. This is done through self-observation, also known as introspections.The second school of thought is functionalism founded by the work of William James and the evolutionary theory of Charles Darwin as a reaction to structuralism. This school of thought states psychology should focus on the functions and purposes of consciousness and human behavior and also emphasized individual differences. This school of thought encourages VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

Organizational Learning And Organizational Knowledge

3677 words - 15 pages cognitive psychology, both the learning of concepts (Medin, 1989) and the acquisition of procedural skill (Anderson, 1982) are well-studied, but therelationship between them after successful acquisition is not. In philosophy, the question of the relationship between knowing and doing has a very rich past (Ryle, 1949).In this theoretical paper, I draw from research in each of these approaches. I examine how knowledge of procedures and concepts has been studied and what conclusions have been reached about the relationship between them. From the collected evidence, it appears that little useful theory has been developed to explain how organizational knowledge and organizational learning are related. I VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

If Human Life Has Intrinsic Value Is Euthanasia Always Immoral?

1806 words - 8 pages The term euthanasia means death without suffering, or a good death. There are four ways to qualify the word euthanasia. Voluntary euthanasia is when a patient makes a conscious decision that his or her life should end, and asks for help in doing so. This is sometimes called assisted suicide. Involuntary euthanasia is when an individual in society makes a positive decision to end the life of someone suffering without consent from the sufferer. Active euthanasia implies some active step, for example the giving of a drug, has been taken to cause the death of a sufferer. Passive euthanasia means no active treatment is given, rather treatment is withheld. Because it arouses questions about the VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

Leadership Styles In Western Business

3366 words - 14 pages the Trait theories. The great man/great woman theory says that those persons in power, both nationally and internationally, influence major events. A sudden act by a great man could, according to this theory; change the fate of the nation (Wrightsman, 1977). The trait theory expands further on this conjecture, by concentrating on the personal characteristics of the leader such as personality, communication skills, intelligence etc.The trait theory does not fully explain leadership as traits are numerous and have different patterns. For example the fact that an approach to leadership in the manufacturing industry in a particular country succeeds does not mean it would succeed in the aviation VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

DR. Mahathir Muhammad

2435 words - 10 pages without his prior approval. In order to bring efficiency Mahathir followed a rather centralized decision making process than a democratic decentralized process. This resulted in a tight command and control structure which is unexpected and harmful to the democracy of a country. Even in businesses the entrepreneurs had to convince Mahathir before entering into Malaysian market and once Mahathir approves any business then that business becomes a hit in Malaysian market. Due to this scenario often businesses stopped concentrating on customers and only concentrated on impressing Mahathir or his Government. Misuse of power is a common sin among the leaders and Mahathir was no different. During his VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

Development Of The U.S. Began With Slavery

1323 words - 6 pages of the Civil War by further polarizing already tense relations between the Northerners and Southerners. President Lincoln, the first to be elected with no support from the South, would launch a crusade to reunite the United States by taking advanced antislavery positions. Lincoln's theory was once Northerners accepted the Scott decision, they would be well on their way to moral indifference, which was a necessary precondition to nationalizing slavery.War was what followed, and after the bloodiest fighting in our history, the North finally was successful in halting the secession and the outlawing of slavery. The differences in these cultures almost destroyed our nation. Some argue it was inevitable and necessary. If the South had not become the wealthiest of our growing nation at its early stages, they would never have joined the quest for independence from Britain. Unfortunately, their wealth would never have been achieved if not for the enslavement of Africans. VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

Arthur Andersen & Co

1303 words - 6 pages Enron's accounts, are both numerous and overreaching. From the initial process of setting up the special purpose entities (SPEs) to the accounting bias fueled by large fees that Enron provided to Arthur Anderson, to the failure to testify truthfully about the Enron scandal in a court of law, participants showed a lack ethical decision-making. Freeman, in his stakeholder theory of business ethics, argues that businesses do bear social responsibilities for their actions. "Public debate over whether Andersen should ever have been indicted as a business in the first place, or whether individual wrongdoers should have been charged instead," did not relive the firm of their social responsibility to VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

Moral Aspects Of Technology(Case Study: Moral Impact Of Mobile Phone Communication On The Society)

3892 words - 16 pages destructive. Even in cases where it was supposed to be used for peaceful purposes has it yielded harmful effects, for example, the Chernobyl accident. Thus, to use nuclear technology for peaceful purposes is merely a human attempt to contain its destructive nature.According to McLuhan, it is advancements in technology which has shaped our past. He held the development of printing completely responsible for the Industrial Revolution and nationalism, for example. In his book he claims that the message itself plays too insignificant a role when compared to the medium itself. However there are certain flaws in this theory as well. According to some critics, the ideas of McLuhan suffer from a VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

Balanced Scorecard

934 words - 4 pages trade-offs between metrics, with the trade-offs appropriately measured, and scores should be assigned to the various alternatives. (Youngblood & Collins, 2003)ConclusionDevelopment of a BSC method allows for shorter decision making time; thereby, optimal results are achieved. Senior managers have the ability to access, analyze, and act on data, participate in processes, and analyze and improve business performance. In order for an organization to maintain and improve their competitive advantage, it is a strategic requirement for companies to continuously monitor their performance improvement systems.Works Cited:Anthes, Gary H., Balanced Scorecard.,Computerworld., February 17, 2003Bruns VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

The Priming Effects Of Counterfactual Thinking

1014 words - 5 pages elimination of framing effects.REFERENCESGalinsky. Adam D. and Gordon B. Moscowitz (2000).“Counterfactuals as behavioral primes: Priming the simulationheuristic and consideration of altematives.” Journal ofExperimental Social Psychology, 36 (July). 384-409.Krishnamurthy. Parthasarthy and Anuradha Sivaraman (2002).“Counterfactual thinking and advertising responses.” Journalof Consumer Research, 28 (March). 650-658.Levin. Irwin P.. Schneider. Sandra L. and Gary J. Gaeth (1998).“All frames are not created equal: A typology and criticalanalysis of framing effects.” Organizational Behavior andHuman Decision Processes, 76 (December). 149-188.Miller. Dale T. and Cathy VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

Civil Rights In America

1001 words - 5 pages segregation. This decision alone authorised on a federal level unjust segregation and discrimination. Furthermore, it meant that segregationist practises such as "Jim Crow Cars" were okay.[1: http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/stories_events_uncivil.html]The Federal Government blocking the advancement of social equality was shown again in "Plessy v Ferguson" (1896). The Federal Government chose to uphold the rule of "separate but equal" which was inherently racist. The case was simple. Homer Plessy, an Octoroon boarded a train on a "whites only" carriage. As this violated the Separate Car Act (1890) he was asked to vacate his seat. After he refused he was arrested. In court, Plessy's lawyer VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

The Arguments About Foreign Project Valuation

2470 words - 10 pages SENSITIVITY ANALYSISSensitivity analysis is the process of varying the assumptions underlying a decision to determine the decision's sensitivity to those assumptions. It enables managers to assess how responsive NPV is to changes in key variables that are used to calculate it (Drury 1996). Some of the factors that influence the NPV of multinationals are taxes, exchange rates, estimating the terminal value of a project using different methodologies, political risk and the real operating options (Buckley 2000). NPV is calculated using the estimated value of sales, unit to be sold and growth rates. Taking each variable one at a time, the NPV can be computed separately to know what the NPV will VIEW DOCUMENT
Free Essays

Management Principal And Practice Within AMEC Plc

3154 words - 13 pages devolved to each business leader, so that they are empowered to take necessary actions to meet the operational objectives set for each business unit by the board.AMEC's underlying philosophy behind this structure is the promotion of entrepreneurial spirit. The Board recognises the complexity of the company's size, its wide-ranging activities, variety of customers and geographic dispersion. The board believes that the only way to manage this complexity is through the decentralisation not only of business units but also of decision-making:'On a daily basis our people face many demands for decisions to be made in support of our goals. We encourage an entrepreneurial approach to this challenge VIEW DOCUMENT