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Title: Sexual Harassment in today’s workplace
Instructor: John J. Lucas
Student name: Janbota Syemyeikhan
Human Resource Management – OBHR 63300
Sexual Harassment in Today’s Workplace
According to recent studies, there were more than 11,000 sexual harassment complaints filed with EEOC each year between 1993 and 2011. (Neo, Hollenbeck, Gerhart & Wright, 2013, p. 134). It is easy to conclude that sexual harassment issues have been widespread in the United States. As an employer, organizations have to maintain a workplace that is free of sexual harassment. An organization has a legal responsibility and an obligation to its employees to provide a safe
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preventing sexual harassment in the workplace. In reference to the New Jersey High Court ruling, employers or supervisors have the obligation to exclude and prevent sexual harassment at the workplaces by introducing tangible measures that can curb the social ill (Aggarwal, 1992). An analysis of the issue of sexual harassment in the workplace and the legal liabilities that befall supervisors and employers reveals a serious need to mitigate such an ill-intentioned behavior and prevent it in every way possible.
Having to deal with sexual harassment cases is not good for the reputation of an organization. For that reason, organizations can mitigate and prevent sexual harassment at the workplace
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Sexual Harassment in the Workplace
Sexual harassment is unwanted and unwelcome behavior, or attention, of a sexual nature that interferes with your life and your ability to function at work, home, or school. Sexual advances, forced sexual activity, statements about sexual orientation or sexuality, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature all constitute sexual harassment. The behavior may be direct or implied. Sexual harassment can affect an individual's work or school performance, and can create an intimidating, hostile, or offensive environment. Sexual harassment is largely a form of gender discrimination, or discrimination
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sexual behavior taking place in a working environment while at the same time proving offensive to a worker or a group of workers. It is behavior which occurs in or outside the setting of work and occurs between work colleagues as opposed to people who have just met and are not working together. The victim is forced to undergo a number of work environment sexualization so as to ensure that they retain their employment or get perks within the organization.
Reasons for Sexual Harassment in the Work Place
According to McDonald and Backstrom (2008), there are several reasons and explanations that have been provided for the occurrence of sexual harassment in the workplace. While these
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CHAPTER 10 “SEXUAL ASSAULTS”
Maria Viviescas, Andrew Tirado, Nathalie Aguiar, Paul Agreda, Paris Akins
Table of Contents
Definition and Statistics (Paul Agreda)
1. Date or Acquaintance of Rape…………………………………………. 4-5
2. Incidence and Prevalence of Rape……………………………………... 6-7
Impact on Victims (Andrew Tirado)
1. Psychological Effects on Victims……………………………………… 7-8
2. Physical Injury of Victim………………………………………………. 9-10
Sexual Assault Vulnerability Factors (Maria Viviescas)
1. Age and Relationship Factors…………………………………………. 11
2. Consumption of
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Sexual Motivation Independent Assignment
1. Describe the human sexual response cycle, and discuss some causes of sexual disorders.
The human seuxual response cycle is excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution. People with penises have a period after orgasm called a refractory period, during which renewed arousal and orgasm are not possible. Some causes of sexual disorders are genes or experience.
2. Discuss the impact of hormones on sexual motivation and behavior.
Sex hormones help with both the activation of sexual behavior, mostly in nonhuman animals, and the physical development of secondary sexual characteristics, such as strong jaws and Adam’s apples with testosterone and
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magisterial theological reflection on sexual anthropology. “There is a disconnect between these theoretical developments and the norms guiding human sexual behavior.“ As is apparent, the revisionist’s point of view here is focused on not simply the result of what human sexual acts lead to, but the importance of the process. They emphasize the importance of physical pleasure not just for the man, but for the woman as well (which are neglected from the Magisterium’s definition of the marital sexual act). In this, a married man and woman can become unified as well, not simply for the purpose of procreating.
Furthermore, “From NNLT’s perspective, the Magisterium is the definitive judge of whether
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Eating Disorder, Substance Abuse, Sex/Gender/Sexual, Impulse-Control, and Personality Disorders
Eating disorders, substance abuse, sexual, gender identity, and personality disorders reduce the capacity for normal human behavior functioning. Even though their components vary extensively, understanding each decreases the stigmatized perception of these disorders and promoting the realistic application of interventions and preventions to support and resume normalcy with individuals and the human behavior.
In Eating disorders the biological emphasis on the hereditary factors, hormonal, neurotransmitter abnormalities, and the structure of the brains irregularities
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feels that they are being sexually harassed, there are steps that the employee should follow. The employee should first file a complaint with their supervisor and to the human resource department. An immediate investigation of the sexual harassment charge should begin. It is important that each employer is made aware that it is their responsibility to report any sexual harassment to their supervisor or human resource office. If the employee feels that his or her complaint is not being handled effectively, the employee can take further action by contacting their state EEOC (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission) ("Preventing Sexual Harassment”).
The workplace needs to be aware of
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sexual behavior. Greek vases displaced artwork of men having sexual relations to boys by placing their penis between the boy’s legs until ejaculation thus leading people to believe it was normal (Rathus, Nevid, & Fichner-Rathus, 2005). It was a few centuries later in Rome when some of the Romans saw men running through the towns looking for mates who seemed feminine and gay because of their hairstyles and appearances. The apostle Paul heard of the news and thought it was a key sign of decadence to the city of Rome (Rathus, Nevid, & Fichner-Rathus, 2005). Therefore, the Christian Church thought of the act of being a homosexual was dirty forming strong negative attitudes towards those of that
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, and makes eople feel inadequate and different if they do not adhere to the
Evidence exists which suggests that what adolescents see on
television, whether or not they know fantasy from reality, is what they
assume society expects of them and the typical sexual being. While it is
human nature to learn from one’s surroundings, television offers negative
images which adolescents take to be the norm.
At an impressionable time in a young adult’s life, the media
bombards them with images of what may seem desirable. The media is a
“critical part of [adolescents’] sexual socialization” (Kaiser Family
Foundation 2). The problem that
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other people are human and not only a vice president, secretary, student or wife. It's about people's fear of a lack of control over their own lives. The most published research on sexual harassment agrees: Women are victims; men are harassers. In surveys, some 40 percent of women report being harassed at work, compared to a negligible proportion of men. When men do report harassment, their harassers are often other men. This supports the theory that sexual harassment is less about sexual desire and more about control and domination.
Men still retain most of the workplace supervisory positions, and they are the ones who decide whether or not a complaint of sexual harassment is justified
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attitudes do not interact, because they do. What it means is that specific attitudes can bring people together. Attitudes have a lot to do with the mind which highly relates to Human behavior.
Teenagers today are going through an era of diverse changes affecting their social needs, perceptions and obligations that need to be recognized Teenagers, nowadays gets into an early relationship because of what they feel, they fall in love easily because of their emotions which leads to not into good results, out of curiosity they tend to have sexual intercourse even though they are not married (Pre-marital sex) they do this because they feel that they are old enough to do it, lack of understanding
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above and beyond just interviewing. He would travel to Chicago to conduct interviews with homosexuals, at a time when most were confined to secrecy, and engage in numerous homosexual encounters while visiting.
In 1948 Kinsey completed his book Sexual Behavior in the Human Male and much to his own surprise it topped the best-seller lists. The very same year, he was able to gain permission to film a small number of sexual encounters involving a few volunteers and members of his staff. He felt that a video was able to capture much more than photographs or drawings would ever be able to when analyzing the material. And in 1950, he sued the United States Customs Bureau when some of the erotica that
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other species. Among primates, male penetrations by other males are common as a demonstration of dominance. Homosexual practice is also common among younger primates; which is regarded as playful activity. Such as their human counterparts, sexual motivation is not prevalent in all sexual acts, but dominance issues play a significantly larger role among non-human species. The inclusion of interspecies comparison is simply to enforce the natural aspects of the behavior; the understanding that the young of a species may also be prevalent in contemporary culture.
Today’s western climate should offer some hope in the formation of a homosexual lifestyle in a traditionally sexually repressed
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disorders epitomizes the depths to which society has sunk in recognition of truly straining abnormalities. The medicalization of sex addiction demonstrates the lengths at which medical authority will go to inject another fabricated disease into the blood of society.
While alleged sex addictions have existed for many years, they have only recently been accepted as valid excuses for sexual deviancy. Attitudes toward sex addiction in the past offer a stark contrast to how it is viewed today, as the constantly medicalizing society insists on putting everything under the technical microscope. Sex addiction is commonly associated with a person’s inability to control his sexual behavior
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whose sexual behavior choices are supported by credible and reliable information regarding risk, consequences, dangers, and receiving the benefits of gained knowledge.
b. What: The intended behavior outcome is that teenagers will alter his or her sexual behavior activities and choices as a result of the program.
c. How: Summative and formative tools will measure expected changes through pre- and post-surveys.
d. Proficiency: The intended criteria of measured success are an increase in sexual education and sexual behavior knowledge among the teenage participants.
e. When: The intended initiation of the program will begin September 2014 and rotate through one school a month
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As previously stated, sexual harassment is “unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature” (Walsh, 2013, p. 273). It often includes unwanted sexual advances; hostile acts based on gender; or sexually charged workplace behavior (McCarty, 2013).
In this case, Ms. Varner was indeed sexually harassed by a co-worker while at work. Mr. Robert Edmiston, on several occasions, placed Ms. Varner in an uncomfortable position. He spoke graphically to Ms. Varner along with showing her images of pornography. In 1991, while working, he reached behind her and squeezed her breast. Ms. Varner was able to escape Mr. Edmiston; however
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countries showed the prevalence and the riskiness of inmates’ sexual and drug use behaviors.2–7 Because of the general lack of condoms and sterile needles/syringes, such behavior may involve greater risk within correctional facilities than on the outside.8
During the early years of the AIDS epidemic, prisons and jails were commonly called breeding grounds for AIDS. Such statements are still made today. A Google search on May 19, 2005, of the terms breeding ground AND HIV AND prisons yielded more than 800 entries from newspapers, United Nations agencies, AIDS activist groups, and human rights organizations around the world. However intended, such opinions imply that
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Anti-Sexual Harassment Act
“We ourselves are required to discover the human remedies for human maladies, to eradicate these shortfalls in human rights.”
These were the words of Justice Shri S. Rajendra Babu of New Delhi, as quoted by Dr. Perla B. Estrella, Center of Human Rights Education (CHRE) Coordinator, in a symposium regarding “Anti-Sexual Harassment Act: Nature and Prevention, [R.A. 7877]” held at BPSU Dinalupihan Campus, on December 12, 2011, Monday, attended by the university administrators, members of the faculty, non-teaching personnel, and privileged members of the student publication.
The program started at around 01:20 in the afternoon with
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and will not be tolerated at _________ (employer). Such behavior or the tolerance of such behavior on the part of an employee violates company policy and may result in disciplinary action up to and including termination.
There is a process for investigating and resolving issues of sexual harassment and discrimination in the company. Employees should immediately report incidents to their immediate supervisor, a higher level of management, or Human Resources Department. The incidents should be reported as specific as possible, including the dates and places of the incidents, the individuals involved, the names of any witnesses, and any other relevant information. Employees who in good faith
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Legal, Safety, and Regulatory Requirements
October 3rd, 2011
Legal, Safety, and Regulatory Requirements
The article made three major points in regards to a complaint of unacceptable behavior (sexual harassment):
1. After discovering a problem exists and a solution to that problem it is important to prevent it. As stated in the article, “an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.” Employers will have a complex, costly, and less proficient workplace if they do not spend the time to create preventative measures and abide by the Equal Employment Opportunity laws.
2. Sexual harassment cannot be ignored in the workplace
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Tracy Webb, J.D.
August 15, 2011
This paper will discuss the meaning of Organizational Behavior and understanding human behavior. I will discuss Organizational Behavior within the Criminal Justice Agency and the important elements of Organizational Behavior and how these elements can challenge the effectiveness of an agency. Organizational Behavior is the study of individual behavior and group dynamics in organizations. An article that I read stated that Organizational Behavior is an application of knowledge about how people, individuals, and groups act in organization. Whatever career and individual choose, the behavior of the human beings tends to
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“Evaluate the extent to which Freud’s theory of psycho-sexual development can help us to understand a client’s presenting issue”.
To being this assignment I will explain the different stages of psycho sexual development. Identifying some of the defense mechanisms that are used by adults in their daily lives. Views by other psychologists, on the contributing factors, that are also considered to be accountable for human behavior.
Freud (1856-1939) originally began his studies as a physician. He worked with many patients, some that suffered from paralysis of limbs but with no medical explanation, but after talking about stressful situations or circumstances that caused them moments of
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should be available if companies are willing to offer them, and this could cause a discrepancy in pay, but would be fairly earned. No women should be asked to go to a strip club on company pay for any reason, whereas no man should be asked to go to a male strip club. In today’s society there seems to be a lot of immaturity, but when it comes to sexual harassment, or any type of unwanted behavior, there needs to be a time when both men, and women take a step back and be more ethical about these situations. Maybe even ask themselves “What if this was my wife, husband, son, or daughter” taking a different look at things, might make individual’s look at things in a different way, and not in a laughing matter.
Noe, R., Hollenbeck, J., Wright, P., & Gerhart, B. (2009). Fundamentals of human resource management. (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
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for their client. It is extremely unethical to execute such unprofessional conduct and behavior because it exploits the client and it is taking advantage of the power the client gave to them in confidence and trust. These dishonorable actions can damage clients’ mental states more so than when they began therapy. It is not in the clients’ best interests for a counselor to execute their power over them because by engaging in sexual relations, the counselors’ are exploiting them.
This can be dangerous for the counselors as well as their clients because they are not just jeopardizing their clients’ well-being, but they also put at risk their careers, reputation, their credibility, and in
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. Classical conditioning interventions such as covert sensitization, operant conditioning techniques such as aversion therapies and contingency management, and cognitive restructuring methods are among the important behavioral and cognitive treatment components. Early psychodynamic explanations for substance misuse focused on the hypothesis of emotional fixation at an oral, pleasure-addicted developmental stage. Current psychodynamic theorists view substance misuse as a maladaptive defense mechanism for coping with painful emotions. (Hansell & Damour, 2005)Sexuality is a ubiquitous, intense, and emotionally conflicted aspect of human life. Sexual dysfunctions can be caused by a wide variety
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sexual system functions, what teens should and shouldn't do-have failed. However, programs that focuses on helping teenagers to change their behavior-using role-playing, games, and exercises that strengthen social skills-have shown signs of success.
In the US, controversy over what message should be given to children has disadvantaged sex education programs in schools. Too often statements of values ("my children should not have sex outside of marriage") come wrapped up in misstatements of fact ("sex education doesn't work anyway"). Should we do everything possible to suppress teenage sexual behavior, or should we acknowledge that many teens are sexually active, and prepare them against the
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v. Costle (Saguy, 2000).
By 1986, however, and now called Meritor Savings Bank (“Celebrating Women’s History,” 2010), the bank appealed the lower courts decision to the Supreme Court. Here began the challenging questions the Supreme Court had to assess. First, does sexual harassment or unwelcome behavior that creates a hostile work environment fall under discrimination based on gender? Had there really been a violation of Title VII despite the lower courts suggesting that if there was a sexual relationship between Vinson and Taylor, it was voluntary? In relation to employer accountability, is it possible to find an employer completely liable for a hostile work environment created by the
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frequently satisfied his sexual needs, sex played a minimal role in human motivation… | To Freud, beset by frustrations and anxious about his thwarted desires, sex played the central role” (Schultz, 1990, p. 148) (Schultz & & Schultz, 2012, p. 326). |
Jung preferred to be alone and isolated as a child, which played a role in his theory later on as inner growth. | Freud’s theories were about interpersonal relationships. |
Jung said libido was life energy | Freud said libido was sex |
Alfred Adler- Individual Psychology
He did not agree with the Oedipus complex. He felt rejected by his mother and closer to his father. | Obviously, Freud coined the term Oedipus complex. |
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When a person thinks of diversity, the first thing that comes to mind is affirmative action. While this is a true statement, there are many different aspects of diversity that affect a company. Workforce diversity is the idea that organizations are becoming more varied in terms of inclusion of diverse groups. The workforce is now comprised of more people who differ in race, gender, national origin, sexual orientation, age, and disability. Organizational Behavior is used to help people to understand how one can value these differences rather than fear, fight, or ignore them. Organizations can improve quality and productivity by improving customer service, and people skills
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Psychology of Aggression & Violence:
Aggression: Behavior perpetrated or attempted with the intention of harming another individual physically or psychologically or to destroy an object.
Violence: Actual, attempted, or threatened physical harm that is deliberate and non-consenting:
* Includes violence against victims who cannot give full, informed consent
* Includes fear-inducing behavior, where threats may be implicit or directed at third parties
Types of Aggression:
Hostile (or expressive) aggression: Occurs in response to anger-inducing conditions, such as real or perceived insults, physical attacks, or one’s own failures. (Goal = to make victim suffer. Intense
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developing an emotional attachment to another woman, because this emotional attachment signaled his willingness to invest resources in this other woman and her offspring.
This theory uses the support from the study that found the sex difference in jealousy evolved through anger or acts of aggressive displayed by men who were evoked by jealous tendencies (Daly and Wilson, 1988), men also use violence to control the sexual behavior of their partner (Daly and Wilson, 1988). In a critical report the findings showed that, when forced to decide if a romantic partner’s sexual infidelity or emotional infidelity angered them more, women were found to choose emotional infidelity over sexual
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negative influence, especially on a female. The information found can be beneficial to others in the sense that what they learned from the fin dings can be a guiding light in their decision making. They may learn how their mistakes could be prevented and how they could be improved on. Sexual development has a strong influence on a human’s thoughts and behaviors. If it’s being suppressed it could be predicted that it will be negatively influenced on what goes through their heads and how they act. It may also explain other problems that may surface later on in life, physically, emotionally and mentally.
Adolescent sexual behavior.
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Furstenberg Jr., Frank F.
American Psychologist, Vol 44(2), Feb 1989, 249-257. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.44.2.249
Human behavioral sex differences: A role for gonadal hormones during early development?
Collaer, Marcia L.; Hines, Melissa
Psychological Bulletin, Vol 118(1), Jul 1995, 55-107. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.118.1.55
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girls” from Kathy Peiss’ “Notes on Working Class Sexuality”, those women were not prostitutes because they were not collecting money for sex. Instead, they were working class women who would sacrifice most of their wages on their looks and have none left for entertainment to let the date pay. “Sexual expression and intimacy comprised an integral part of these working women’s lives” (Peiss, 77). While some parts of the society criticized this view as immoral, “charity girls” offered some “model” of sexual behavior to the rest of women, who “would have [otherwise] had to weight their desire for social participation against traditional sanctions on [sexuality]” (Peiss, 76). The views of the
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describes or accounts for all child molester. There are many variables among individuals in terms of their personal characteristics, life experiences, criminal histories, and reasons for committing such offenses. One common misconception isthat molested children grow up to become child molesters themselves. But, in fact, most childhood sexual abuse victims do not go on tobecome perpetrators. In some instances, if a child is sexually victimized, and is abused in other ways as well, he or she may later molest achild. Likewise, a sexually abused child who also exhibits antisocial behavior may go on to commit acts of child molestation, although anindividual's inadequate social and
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Over the years, the formerly frowned upon “hook-up” relationships that were seen to be problematic are presently perceived as normal behavior on college campuses (Manning, Giordana, & Longmore, 2006), making this a desired area for study. Much of the research regarding sexual behavior among college students has been compiled of quantitative data measuring the frequency of the “hook-up’” and the scripts associated with it, yet little has supplied us with in-depth qualitative data to understand the nature of such behavior and how it affects relationships. Because of this, I seek to expand the research already presented by observing and analyzing the social norms, scripts, and
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Do bisexual men really deserve acceptance?
Gone are those days when men used to cheat there wife’s for another woman. World is changing so are men. Well the bisexual trait is well established in men and woman but when it comes to bisexual men, the things are pretty dramatic and demanding. Well before starting this debatable article I wish to recall the definition of bisexuality in order to clear out any misunderstanding and misconceptions. Bisexuality is romantic or sexual attraction or you can say behavior towards male and female. Although this looks quite simple in terms of writing but its not, trust me. We often do not believe this as it looks like an individual choice. Besides having
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Foundations of Human Development in the Social Environment
Exploring the dynamics of human behavior prepares a foundation of knowledge that builds practice skills. The primary step in helping a client is assessing, which includes investigating and determining the changes that affects a recognized problem or issue from a wide range of perceptions. There are always reasons why people act in the manner they do and it is the human service professional’s job to verify that reason. A normal development milestone has serious impacts on the client and social workers must understand these milestones to provide information to the clients. Appropriate assessments of client behavior
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ï»¿Three aspects that affect our ability to counter a life threatening situation are:
Three ways stress affects our bodies:
The Sympathetic Nervous system affects:
Flight, Fight, Freeze, and Posture
Regulates our arousal level
A subconscious mechanism
Stress is a natural non-specific response of the body to any demand.
Consequences of stress:
Digestive disorders Depression
Heart disease Substance Abuse
Back Pain Divorce
Weight Problems Suicide
Fitness â€“ The ability to perform physical activities while being free of health problems
Incorporates nutrition, weight and stress
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Gender identity is a complex and multi-dimensional element of a person (Egan & Perry, 2001). Gender identity is the self – identification as male or female. Gender identity, however, is not the same as sexual orientation (Sue, Sue, & Sue, 2010). Both biological and environmental factors contribute to one’s gender identity. Many people have the assumption that there are male and female hormones that determine gender identity (Pinel, 2009). However, this is not the case. In this paper, I will discuss how hormones, as well as environment, affect one’s gender identity and behavior.
Biological Factors and Sexual Differentiation The human
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Heredity and Hormones
Petrina M Murti
August 29, 2012
When comparing and contrasting the influence of heredity and hormones on human behavior I found that both play a major role that is perfectly balanced in order for a human to function properly. Heredity is the biological process of inheriting certain traits of physical and mental qualities through generations from each parent at the time of conception. Hormones are the development of a person their growth; the ability to concentrate, aggressiveness, sexual drive, reproduction, metabolism and play a major role on the ability to learn and the type of mood a person is in.
The endocrine system plays a key
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unconscious realm. In contrast to Freud’s views, Jung rejected that behavior and personality were largely driven by sexual desire and would instead embrace the idea that the human psyche was largely founded in religious notions and that the subconscious and conscious minds were separated and linked through religiosity (Boeree, 1997-2006). Jung’s form of psychiatry combined elements of medicine and spirituality (Boeree, 1997-2006). A large part of Jung’s philosophy was steeped in dreams and symbol interpretation. According to Jung’s theory, dreams were a means of viewing the unconscious thoughts and in order for people to develop, they must learn to integrate the unconscious with the conscious mind in
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Was Petit’s behavior unprofessional or immoral? Do you believe she was unfit to teach?
I do not feel as though Mrs. Petit’s behavior was unprofessional or immoral. Every human being has the right to practice sex how they see fit. Now, her act may have been illegal in that present day in age but not unprofessional or immoral unless one personally feels as if swinging and wife swapping are erroneous overall. I do not think people have the right to judge others when it comes to sex. I, myself would not choose to engage in such activities because of my values and morals on sex and my religious beliefs but that doesn’t mean that my values and morals are correct and a law that others must
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. al introduce Cass’s Model of Sexual Orientation Identity Formation which has six stages of perception and behavior presented in 1979 and Fassinger’s Model of Gay and Lesbian Identity Development which was presented in 1996 and was first focused on lesbians and then later was validated for gay males as well.
A main critique of sexual identity development studies is that there are so few and have small samplings. This leads to not enough research to study and draw conclusions from. In the article Researching Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Youth: Conceptual, Practical and Ethical Considerations by Anthony R. D’Augelli and Arnold H. Grossman they discuss the limitations of the current
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Analysis of Major Characters
When the play begins, Blanche is already a fallen woman in society’s eyes. Her family fortune and estate are gone, she lost her young husband to suicide years earlier, and she is a social pariah due to her indiscrete sexual behavior. She also has a bad drinking problem, which she covers up poorly. Behind her veneer of social snobbery and sexual propriety, Blanche is an insecure, dislocated individual. She is an aging Southern belle who lives in a state of perpetual panic about her fading beauty. Her manner is dainty and frail, and she sports a wardrobe of showy but cheap evening clothes
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., Perrett, D. I., Little, A. C., Feinberg, D. R., & Smith, M. J. L. (2008). Effects of menstrual cycle phase on face preferences. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 37, 78–84.
Jones, B. C., Little, A. C., Penton-Voak, I. S., Tiddeman, B. P., Burt, D. M., & Perrett, D. I. (2001). Facial symmetry and judgments of apparent health: support for a “good genes” explanation of the attractiveness– symmetry relationship. Evolution and Human Behavior, 22, 417429.
Koehler, N., Rhodes, G., & Simmons, L. W. (2002). Are human female preferences for symmetrical male faces enhanced when conception is likely? Animal Behaviour, 64, 233238.
Komori, M., Kawamura, S., & Ishihara, S. (2009a). Averageness or symmetry: which is more important for facial attractiveness? Acta Psychologica, 131, 136142.
Komori, M., Kawamura, S., & Ishihara, S. (2009b). Effect of averageness and sexual dimorphism on the judgment of facial attractiveness. Vision Research, 49, 862869.
Langlois, J., Kalakanis, L., Rubenstein, A., Larson, A., Hallam, M., & Smoot, M.
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branch of social science that uses the scientific method of the natural sciences and suggests that human behavior is a product of social, biological, psychological, or economic forces.
o Two elements
âœ“ Positivists see human behavior as function of external forces that are often beyond individual control.
âœ“ Positivists rely on the scientific method. They would agree that an abstract concept such as â€œintelligenceâ€ exists because it can be measured by an IQ test. They would challenge a concept such as the â€œsoulâ€ because it cannot be verified by scientific method.
âœ“ Comte- founder of sociology argued that societies pass through stages that can be grouped
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theorists have found substantial instances of anatomical, genetic, and |
| |endocrine evidence to support their argument. Experiments in biological research date back as far as the late 1930's, beginning with|
| |the pioneering research of Alfred Kinsey (for the University of Indiana) on human sexuality. Kinsey had two goals for his tests: 1) |
| |to find out how many adult males engaged in homosexual behavior, and 2) to suggest theories about it came to be . When asked if |
| |they had engaged in homosexual sexual relations, a large percent of the population tested answered "no", however when asked if they |
| |had engaged in same-sex sexual relations
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is important to acknowledge in order encouraging effective healthcare behaviors in the prevention of HIV/AIDs. The Health Belief Model assists in the understanding of patient motivation in the adaptation of behaviors that do not place the clients at risk. Although there are various variables to address, the emotional, cultural and social meanings attached to sexual behavior are one of the firsthand factors in the higher prevalence and increasing incidence rates of HIV, AIDs, and other STDs among African American women (Foreman, 2003). The patient education process is propagated through firsthand understanding of the reasoning and thought processes concerned with the risk behavior. This way