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[an] historical trajectory. There is another history of art, however, a history of representations ... for me, and some other erstwhile conceptualists, conceptual art opened onto that other history, a history which opens onto history. Art practice was no longer to be defined as an artisanal activity, a process of crafting fine objects in a given medium, it was rather to be seen as a set of operations performed in a field of signifying practices, perhaps centred on a medium but certainly not bounded by it'.
(Victor Burgin, 'The absence of presence', Art in Theory, pp. 1098-9)
Discuss the merits of Burgin's statement as a basis on which to distinguish postmodernism from Modernism in the
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To what extent does modernist and/or postmodernist literature and/or film confirm or question the dominant ideologies of womanhood and femininity? How does it do this?
Postmodernism is the reaction of the development of the modernism movement, it consists after the modernism movement from a literal point of view. Postmodernism can be defined by a set of perspectives which are mainly used as a critical point of view in such works as literature, drama and cinema to name but a few. One of the dominant perspectives to postmodernism is feminism; many argue that the representation of women and femininity isnâ€™t represented in a positive manner in things such as literature and cinema. This can
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construction of a new society.A common motif in Modernist fiction is that of an alienated individual--a dysfunctional individual trying in vain to make sense of a predominantly urban and fragmented society. In Romanticism language was transformative: the reader was transported by the poem. In Modernism language was formative: the reader was not transported anywhere.This first episode of Ulysses demonstrates the typical qualities of a modernist text in that the readers are offered no introductions or exposition of the characters or place. Further difficulties arise for the first-time readers as it becomes clear that there are no explanations or obvious links from one action, speech or thought
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1. How are the failures in economic, social, political, and ecological systems the result of modernism reaching its limits? How are these failures being propelled by globalization? In what sense could these failures be considered the birth pangs of a new stage of social organization that goes beyond modernism?
Modernism has put pressure upon the various aspects of society to further improve them. Doing so has required monetary funds and the cooperation with political officials. These goals tend to fail themselves. Consumerism is one of the outcomes of modernism. Attitudes have adjusted to a disposable lifestyle. When a new product is released, there is a superficial “need”. Modernism, as
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Over the past couple of decades, through the use of Information Technology as the great enabler, Apple Computers has reached rarefied heights of scientific and technological progress in an amazingly short span of time. However, this wholesale implementation of information technology by Apple and its competitors has brought with it a host of unintended and unforeseen consequences.
Through the prism of Modernism, information technology has not elevated society to the Utopic state that it hoped for. To the contrary, it has helped to create an existence categorized by constant change and an information orientated perspective on the world. Technological progress has not been
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point of of view and his main ideas of Modernism. Conrad believes that success is made by certain philosophical problems which become central to the literary movement which is Modernism. He says, "Modernism had its peak in the years between World War I and World War II.Some of the most illustrative examples in the book that reflect this idea is when Conrad introduces these Modernistic concerns through Marlows narration where the actual question of "meaning" arises. The main ideas of this article is the debate over whether Heart of Darkness should be interpreted in terms of either colonial and historical or philosophical really is tough. It seems abstract to think that the philospohical problems only occur in the colonial days involving language and truth which he says only arises out of concrete problems. At the same time the concrete problems of colonial domination occur during the twentieth century have the same philosophical implications.
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her “personal” modernism in Jane Eyre. Rising from this modernism, the variable that enabled the Jane Eyre to outcompete her evolutionary rivals is passion. Indeed, passion is the hallmark of modernism, aiding the prevalence of Jane Eyre amongst the mindless followers of the upper-class, albeit whilst hiding an inherent dilemma. This dilemma is the cognitive shift in the social logic of the class system, underpinned by the misperception of specific social behaviours stemming from this class system. This is an examination of this shift in how society is thinking, brought about by standards set by the upper class, incorporating an analysis of why Victorian readers cannot be forgiven for
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transformation of French life that occurred during the latter half of the 19th century (Kleiner, 2014).
b. Artwork significant to the movement
* Monet, C. (1877). “Saint Lazare Train Station” [oil on canvas 2’ 5 ¾ x 3’ 5”]. Muse d’ Orsay, Paris. In F. S. Kleiner (Ed.), Gardner’s art through the ages: The Western perspective (14 ed., Vol. II, p. 562). Boston, MA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
* Caillebotte, G. (1877). “A Rainy Day” [oil on canvas 6’ 9” x 9’ 9”]. Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago. In F. S. Kleiner (Ed.), Gardner’s art through the ages: The Western perspective (14 ed., Vol. II, p. 562). Boston, MA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
III. Modernism (began during the 2nd half of
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Right has especially been criticised for destroying the community and society due to its emphasis on market principles.
Post-modernism focuses and stresses the uncertain natures of societies. Modernism is viewed to be a time when study of the world was based on scientific and traditional matters. Post-modernism argues that the range of sociological perspectives may have been superseded due to the nature of society changing in modern advanced industrial societies it also studies the theories as having a part and having interesting views about society. Post-modernism argues that class identity is no longer a vital role in society as it was back in the day but states that they
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An Introduction to Modernism and The Great Gatsby Modernism:
F. Scott Ftizgerald's The Great Gatsby, which is widely considered to be one of the greatest of all American novels, was written in the 1920's during the period of literary philosophy known as Modernism. Modernism was a philosophical and artistic movement of the early 20th century which portrayed the world of men as a harsh, hostile environment in which life had lost its meaning and men and women were isolated from each other, struggling to survive alone. This world is one in which our dreams are unrealistic and futile. More specifically, the following characterize the modernist philosophy:
1) It was a completely new, original
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, featuring in the film Pennies from Heaven, producing many hit singles. Even in the dying years of his life, Armstrong continued to make music to finally pass away July 6, 1971. Ralph Ellison, author of The Invisible Man, shows various points of racial discrimination, existentialism, and modernism throughout his novel by the influences of Louis Armstrong.
In the prologue of The Invisible Man, the narrator continuously refers back to the music of Louis Armstrong. More specifically, while hiding in a basement full of lights and under the influence of marijuana, which Armstrong once got arrested for because of overwork and stress from his managers, the narrator listens to Armstrong’s song, “What
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attitudes and events surrounding the writing of the novels can attribute to these differences and interpretations. It almost seems as if Cunningham is attempting to elaborate on Woolf’s novel; welcoming readers who have and have not read the novel, and beckoning them to read or reread her novel with a renewed view.
Through the reading of these to excerpts from the two novel, and through the viewing of the film, one can argue against the idea of postmodernism setting itself against modernism only to be different in order to be different, which is a common perception. Through the analysis of these two novels, I would like to argue that postmodernism does not use modernism as a negative point of departure, but through the joint abhorrence of reality and the values of society, I would say that it uses it as a positive point of departure. Both modernism and postmodernism share characteristics, in their representation of the world, seen through the literary periods, which can be seen through them, and unite them.
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movement into Modernism, both on the individual and political/institutional level. He does so by defining his type-characters as ignorant, self-centered and hypocritical in their disastrous movement toward individualism.
Through the use of satire, the issues presented by Waugh in Vile Bodies become greatly influenced by the time period in which the novel was written. Great Britain, in the late 1920’s and early 1930’s, was placed on the time line between the Great Wars. Thus, the novel’s placement in the history shifts its focus not only toward the emergence of the World War II but also on the depressed postwar economy of Britain at the time. Some of the most prominent ideas evolving during
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of these styles exist in numerous books written prior the end of the second World War. Notable texts before this period using "postmodern" techniques include Sterne's Tristram Shandy (1767), Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865), Joyce's Ulysses (1922), and Woolf's The Waves (1934). If James Joyce's Ulysses is viewed as the crowning achievement of "high modernism," yet contains some of the stylistics of postmodernism, then what exactly is modernism?
Before comparing a "masterwork" like Ulysses to any pop album, I will concede that the pop album (in most cases) does not carry stylistic diversity or density, the philosophical and socio-political arguments, or the
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During the later half of the twentieth century, Jibanananda Das emerged as the most popular poet of modern Bengali literature. Popularity apart, Jibanananda had distinguished himself as an extraordinary poet presenting a paradigm hitherto unfamiliar. It is said that his unusual poetic diction, selection of words and thematic inclination took time to reach the heart of the readers. The poetry of Jibanananda has become the defining essence of modernism in twentieth century Bengali poetry. He is considered one of the precursors who introduced modernist poetry to Bengali Literature, at a period when it was influenced by Rabindranath Tagore's Romantic poetry. Towards the later
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About the time of World War I came a man that would help change the thinking of many people. T.S. Eliot, along with many other poets and artists, headed a new revolution known as Modernism. According to Lavender, (1998) modernism is a rebellion against the Victorian traditions of that time. Modernists believed that the industrialized nations with cash-based economies, primarily Protestant Christian, were not the "civilized" people. Instead, they saw them as greedy hypocrites who made freedom unattainable. The modernists thought that the truly civilized people were the people who Victorians considered savage: hunters/gatherer tribes with barter-based economies with mainly "pagan" beliefs
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previously mentioned. The work is said to be typical of the era, described as Russian Modernism. The artist was born and raised in Uzbekistan, but ethnically Russian and trained in Kiev during the height of European Modernism. The piece is pencil on paper and is approximately five inches by seven inches. It is framed in a large, black frame with a thick, white mat approximately four inches in width. It hangs alone on a narrow section of wall and is well-lit. It can only be viewed on one side due to the frame and position on the wall.
The drawing is a monochromatic, gray scale depiction of a group of four males. One, the bacha, is dancing while another, to the right, is playing a stringed
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| | | |
| |material well-being of people in need for | | | |
| |benefits, disability, and health. “The protection| | | |
| |of rights to education, housing, and welfare. | | | |
|Postmodernism |Postmodernism is when lifestyle developed and |Humanity in post-modernism are |Health and ill-health is a growing
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values that Sunrise is promoting, due to the excessive tenderness and emotion of the film, in the themes of forgiveness and rekindled affection. Thus, Sunrise: A Song of Two Humans may be one of the most effective conservative films of its time in that its messages about anti-modernism and women are heavily concealed in the kind of romantic sentimentality that appeals to many.
The very center of modernism in this film is the city, which is nameless and feels as though it’s on an entirely separate plane of existence from the village where The Man and The Wife live; it can only be reached by rowing all the way across what appears to be a large lake, and then riding a trolley that happens
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A progressive president is one that modernized the United States in a way that brought them to a new level. They used new styles of the presidency that helped them get the job done, like addressing the people of the country and letting them know what is going on.. These presidents had to walk the fence in many cases. By this I mean be on the people or consumers side and also had to be on the big business' side. In the early 1900's the position of the presidency took a turn towards modernism.
The first of the progressive presidents was Theodore Roosevelt. He started the whole progressive idea. The funny thing is that he wasn't going to get started in
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First 15 years of the 20th century show the changes in the theory, and practice art, among the modern artiest in western world. First 15 years were remarkable, they compare with great and advance science and technology of same time. It was time of growing instance in western culture, and continued rapid industrial of imperial aboard, and rivalry in the Europe. During the 20th century Paris was focus of modernism. In the 19th century scientist discover the theory, which were not just question of our way of seeing things, but show the very natural reality itself. Planet’s contam theory, Ayenstine‘s relativility theory, foid’s work on psycho analysis.
Vienna was one of the unique and
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IntroductionAccording to the postmodern theorist Jean-François Lyotard, the term represents a culmination of the process of modernity and enlightenment thought, toward speedy cultural change, to a state where constant change is the status quo, leaving the notion of progress contradictory. Postmodernism, thus, relies on concrete experience over abstract principles, always cognizant that the end result of one's experience will necessarily be fallible and relative rather than certain and universal. While modernism deals with purpose, design, hierarchy, distance, synthesis, centering, and presence, postmodernism is synonymous with play, chance, anarchy, participation, antithesis
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assumptions and accepted truths in society. Postmodernism was a paradigm that arose as a reaction-developed out of- to Modernism, which valued reform and a questioning of traditions. Postmodernists of the 1970s embraced differing interpretations, ambiguity and deconstructed accepted truths, however Postmodern ideas are embedded in texts prior to the movement. Heller’s Catch-22 and Beckett’s play Waiting For Godot use forms and features to raise Post-Structuralist notions where the concept of language as meaningless is portrayed, and the attempt to convey truth through communication is disrupted by the single act of communicating them; while the play and Yates’ novel Revolutionary Road create a
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same time. Both these groups produced influential work but did not stand the test of time. They certainly were however precedents to powerful modern art in India.
This movement towards modernism and contemporary Indian art had very little female participation. The only woman artist from this period who's work is still talked about today is Amrita Sher-Gil. (Her mother was Hungarian and her father was from Punjab, India) After her schooling in Europe she returned to India to explore her roots during which she produced impressive work. Apart from her, no other eminent female artists were a part of this movement.
Modern art in India has a been a widely debated topic. Artists are
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referred to as legitimizing science before post-modernism; one, that science is legitimized as a tool for the liberation of humanity, and two, that science is to define a speculative unity for all of knowledge-a totalizing philosophy of the universe, so to speak.
Since science has gone from a representational to a non-representational practice, these two justifications (especially the second) are no longer valid. Since science is no longer seen as something capable of revealing some objective reality (which post-modernists say is impossible), what could take their place as legitimation? Besides a consideration of the effects of this societal evolution on the people and power structures
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In recent years our world has undergone many changes and advancements, cloning is a primary example of this new modernism. On July 5th, 1995, Dolly, the first cloned animal, was created. She was cloned from a six-year-old sheep, making her cells genetically six years old at her creation. However, scientists were amazed to see Dolly live for another six years, until she died early 2005 from a common lung disease found in sheep. This discovery sparked a curiosity for cloning all over the world, however, mankind must answer a question, should cloning be allowed? To answer this question some issues need to be explored. Is cloning morally correct, is it a reliable way to produce life, and should
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general, people use to respect high statues men. "Keep your tongue between your teeth, fool, and let me pass" (1229).
As a thesis of statement, village represents people who are close to nature, and town represents industrial, civilization and modernism. So readers of this story can believe that town's environment is strange and different to Robin than village environment where he is used to "Strange things we travelers see!"(1230), which leads him to think that town's people are moving to religious issues rather than any other issue "one solitary ray had dared to rest upon the opened page of the great bible" (1230).
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‘grimy’, ‘withered’ and ‘muddy feet’ to portray the city as a foul and unwelcoming place. This technique gives the reader an idea of Eliot’s perception on the city which is as a place people will want to escape from. This diction also reflects upon Eliot’s context. Modernism, recognised through the rise of motor vehicles and industries is viewed as smoky and polluted.
In Preludes III, T.S Eliot uses the perspective of second person to refer to the readers, dragging them into the bleak landscape of the poem. This perspective used by T.S Eliot allows the readers to feel the claustrophobia within the poem and their urge to escape from the city.
In Preludes IV, T.S Eliot alters the perspective
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[pic] You can tell a true war story if you just keep on telling it.
[pic] A true war story is never about war.
[pic] In war you love your sense of the definite, hence your sense of truth itself; therefore it’s safe to say that in a true war story nothing is ever absolutely true.
Elements of Tim O’Brien’s Writing Style
* Please refer to the brainstormed list and examples that we compiled in class.
Elements of Post-Modernism
[pic] The truth is more in the story-truth than in the happening-truth; you can play around with the ‘truth’ in order to make the story more powerful.
[pic] The story does NOT follow a linear chronology – instead, the story occurs in short vignettes that jump around in time.
[pic] Each different vignette puts a new ‘spin’ on the same topic: the same event can be looked at from many different angles and perspectives.
The Things They Carried by Tim O’Brien
The Things YOU Carry – a creative writing assignment
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about the project.
The Bahrain Bay BSC project will involve a very unique life style where modernism and technology exist to satisfy all customers and visitors. To add a more value for the long time relation they are looking for, Bahrain Bay made a donation to the Busaiteen football team showing how important for them is to be a part of the community and how they want to be committed toward their customers and investors to mark a loyalty between them and the real world life. Bahrain Bay is looking to achieve its own unique community where people of all kinds will fit in.
1- Why does Bahrain need another island city center after Solidere in Beirut, the Palm Island and DIFC in Dubai and
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, Heart of Darkness can be considered a work of interest and literary quality because of his cultural traditions; generic novel that shows the writer’s quest, traveler’s tales, psychological odyssey: travel within his own mind, symbolic novel: the journey the river, mediated autobiography: Conrad’s experiences through the character.
Heart of Darkness provides a bridge between Victorian values and the ideals of modernism. Like other Victorian novels, this one relies on traditional ideas of heroism, which is nevertheless under constant attack in a changing world and in places far from England. Joseph Conrad like others writers, Charles dickens, George Orwell and John Steinbeck, curb the bad
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during the middle third of the 20th century. She grew up on a farm in Wisconsin, which is depicted in that middle-American landscape that Benton and Wood sometimes portrayed. She came to New York, met and married in 1924 the great Alfred Stieglitz, one of the key figures in American modernism, both as a photographer and by way of his gallery 291. She too became a preacher of the gospel of avant garde abstraction. Yet here in 1930, we see that following a nervous breakdown, she made her first extensive visit to New Mexico where she found a kind of clam and restorative atmosphere, after the excessive energy of New York, and created this startling image where we see both representational and
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upon that situation. Another vital improvement would be for the formal leaders’ to be charismatic leaders which would influence their subordinates through a combination of their personal characteristics, goals and different circumstances.
Mentoring in the Air Force is of great value and should be increased so that more individuals can benefit from the experienced manager or supervisor to provide positive support, direction and feedback.
Organization Behavior is a great skill for life rather it be the Air Force, Costco, Wal-Mart, or any mundane job that you happen to find yourself working. Modernism is a great way for the Air Force or any organization to excel, profit, and improve
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Art Nouveau, Cubism, Futurism, Modernism, Neo-Classicism and Bauhaus (Benton, 2003) - the themes of the works did have a commonality. “The Lost Generation” was a
The Harlem Renaissance was a very important time as well. There were literary, artistic, and cultural significant issues affecting the lives of African Americans. These were the first important movement of black artists and writers in the United States. They began in Harlem, New York. Literature defined the moment in African American literature increased pieces published by black authors and writers wanted to pay tribute to their heritage and unique culture. It began as an idea, a discussion that ended with the
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. Her mind illustrates in the interest of a more comprehensive view of reality with the love of God, who exists on a plane of spiritual experience that transcends both learning and piety. “The Hamptameron” was one of her best works which was to foster a search for moral explosions by bringing out the psychological fine points through moral, sociological and theological issues.
My conclusion so far is that the Middle ages and renaissance has thought us a lot about how things used to be since the Greek times. The Middle ages were all about the absolute power of God, which was controlled by the catholic church. Renaissance brought about modernism and humankinds relationship with God. The
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few times Zora Neale Hurston addressed problems that people of her race encountered. I was surprised of how the story was centered on the street life of Harlem citizens and their struggles. In many of her other works she completely escapes writing about issues of the black race, which makes “Story in Harlem Slang” a unique writing from Zora Neale Hurston.
Hurston, Zora Neale. "Story in Harlem Slang." The Complete Stories. New York: HarperCollins, 1995. N. pag. Print.
Holcomb, Gary Edward., and Charles Scruggs. "A Shared Language of American Modernism." Hemingway and the Black Renaissance. Columbus: Ohio State UP, 2012. N. pag. Print.
Holcomb, Gary Edward., and Charles Scruggs. "Race and Nation." Hemingway and the Black Renaissance. Columbus: Ohio State UP, 2012. N. pag. Print.
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Mayo and his associates, CMS also seeks to address prevailing capitalist forms of management and organizations that does not address broader issues in management practices, such business ethics, feminism, and environmental concerns. These issues form the platform for the invitation to conduct a reflective analysis of established assumptions in management practices in a dialectal way so as to address the broader issues in organizations and management practices.
Needless to say these two main paradigms in the twentieth century finds expressions in the modernism and post modernism discourses of organizational theories and management practices which gives credence to Delbridge and Keenoy’s
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America’s most important contribution to Modernism (wikipedia). Pollock is similar to my style of painting in that his work was large in scale, loud in colour, and free-flowing. Pollock’s style is clearly seen in ‘Blue Poles: Number 11’, 1952, enamel and aluminium paint with glass on canvas. I love large scale that are loud and colourful and free flowing.
The work and techniques of the artists O’Keefe, Picasso, Van Gogh, Warhol and Pollock have inspired and influenced my developing art style. These artists use a variety of media and styles ranging from abstractions, surrealism, expressionism, cubism and modernism.
Art is complex and ever changing and artist’s ideas, their beliefs
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economically, psychologically, and organizations issues. Economically it causes over-stressed population, downsizing or re-organizing departments, massive layoffs, decline, massive mergers, post modernism and unemployment. Psychologically issues cause workplace violence result of employees who have experienced emotional, physical, or sexual abuse. Employees do bring their “baggage” into the workplace. As a final point, Organizational structure, management style such as demanding, division between employees and managers, the lack of opportunity to address complaints, threats of violence, creativity and new ideas being discouraged. Empowered employees and a voice in the decision-making
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objectivity was an oxymoron and that history was more of an entertainment than an arm of academic study. The post modernism movement was established after the confusion of the World Wars. This explains why their notions on history because scientific history had been the prevailing idea in history until this occurred. However, after the world wars people like Keith Jenkins had seen historians who were supposedly unbiased rush to justify their country and demonize the enemy and thus destroying the current ideas of historical objectivity. Jenkins believes that history has no real relevance to the society of the day because he believes "That past, appropriated by historians, is never the past
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learning and teaching to this point is embedded in broader concerns of post-modernism: where assumptions and values about our world are suspect, where cultural differences are being confronted, and where educating for democracy is essential. Children and teachers need to learn how to relate to a continuing and rapidly changing world. We need to engage in activities and discussions which will allow us to be open to new views and understandings. In this regard, the notion of "contexts of meaning" provides us with a way of understanding different perspectives, while allowing each of us to see where our own allegiance lies. Understanding difference (such as across cultures, religions, beliefs, and
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incorporating the European modernism and his own passion for nature and structural extremes and brought it all together into a magnificent resolved entirety.
Being the only work by Frank Lloyd Wright open to the general public, Fallingwater tours are offered annually, with an experience capable of expanding ones’ appreciation for a lot more than just Wright's creative power. Indeed, Fallingwater supersedes basic architecture, becoming more of an art work. “When visiting the premises, it is immediately noticeable that the structure houses several accomplishments by other 20th Century legends, including art works by Vincent Van Gogh and Pablo Picasso” (Hoffman, 19, The House and Its History 2ndedition
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questioned Greenberg. A lot of contemporary criticism had been dedicated to refuting his theories. But recently, his theories have been reconsidered once again in the light of politics.
Bocola, Sandro. The Art of Modernism. New York, NY: Prestel Verlag®, 1999.
Marilyn, Stokstad. Art Histor: Revised Edition. New York, NY: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., and Prentice Hall,
Inc., Publishers 1999.
“The Greenberg Symposia,” ArtNetWeb.
(14 Feb. 2002)
“Jackson Pollock,” NationalGallery of Art, Washington D.C.
http://www.nga.gov.uhs.bsd.edu/uhs/topics/feature/pollock.html (14 Feb.2002)
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Let me now re-emphasise the extreme looseness of the structure of all objects" How Ondaatje makes use of "loosness" in the novel. In "In The Skin Of A Lion" by Michael Ondaatje, "the extreme looseness of the structure of all objects" is carried into the themes, characters and into the nature of the novel itself. Ondaatje uses a "looseness" in the style of the novel - post modernism, and "looseness of structure" in the way that people are able to stretch and expand their boundaries: transform or mask themselves into someone not typical of their social group. This novel was written in the late 1980s and is classified as a post-modern work. Essentially, "In The Skin Of A Lion" has many traits
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“modernism” was done away with in 1934. The new style of art, approved by the Congress of Soviet Writers, was called social realism. The purpose of this style was to create “a true, historically concrete portrayal of reality in its revolutionary development”. Artists were told to describe only positive aspects of socialist society “simply and directly”. All western art was to be shunned or left unspoken. The arts were the new publicity for the Communist party. It depicted hard working men and women to reinforce the public and show the “benefits” of communism as a whole. Art served as publicity and propaganda and support for most other totalitarian regimes during the twenty-first century.
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women being exploited in the economic market, and privately as women being the victims.
Fox example, feminism have argued that men have most of the power in families, that they tend be employed in better paid and higher status jobs than women, and that they tend to monopolize positions of political power. The ultimate aim of these types of feminism is to end menâ€™s domination and to rid society of the exploitation of women. Such feminism advances a range of exploitation for, and solutions to, the exploitation of women. However, they all believe that the development of society can be explained and that progress towards an improved future is possible.
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-narrativesâ€™, but postmodernism is a meta-narrative itself since it is a theory, interpreting the role of religion etc. Hence, Bruce (2002) claims that postmodernism overemphasises the degree to which traditional beliefs and old certainties have collapsed. This view can be culture-dependent since in some countries chose of religion is not a right, instead people are forced to believe a certain way or they will be punished, therefore the emphasis on choice can be questioned. In addition, fundamentalism can be seen as a reactionary response to modernism, rather than a post-modernist response to choice. Individuals may seek fundamental principles due to reacting to the modernisation of
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Black Militancy.â€ Journal of Black v Studies. Vol. 1, No. 4 (Jun, 1971): 387-402.
5. McAlister, Melani. â€œOne Black Allah: The Middle East in the Cultural Politics of African American Liberation, 1955-1970.â€ American Quarterly. Volume 51, Number 3 (Sept 1999): 622-656.
6. Bornstein, George. â€œMalcolm X: A Life of Reinventionâ€ Modernism/Modernity. Volume 18, Number 3, (Sept 2011):663-665.
7. Mamiya, Lawrence H. â€œFrom Black Muslim to Bilalian: The Evolution of a Movementâ€ Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vol. 21, No. 2 (Jun., 1982):138-152.
8. Jones, Oliver, Jr. â€œThe Black Muslim Movement and the American Constitutional System.â€ Journal of Black Studies
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feminism or a ruling class ideology as suggested by Marxism. They have a more current view on the family and suggest that because of social and cultural changes, such as immigration, there is much broader range of living opportunities. Postmodernists believe that all modernism ignores family diversity and they assert that there is no 'best' family type. They believe that people have become more individual from the family structure and suggest functionalism ignores two key factors, that as individual social actors, we make our own choices in regards to our family life and relationships, and that we now have a much greater choice about our personal relationships, as different family forms are
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Anderson’s concept of nation as an ‘imagined community’. To this extent, we would first briefly explain the Anderson’s concept and various aspects of his definition of a nation. Following a brief overview of the concept of ‘imagined communities’, we would separately identify the ideology of Gandhi, Nehru, Jinnah and Iqbal relating to how they perceived the post-colonial nation should be. This would be respectively followed by a comparison of the various perspectives with Anderson’s theory of ‘imagined community’. In the paper, we would also consider the concepts of primordiality and modernism where applicable, and to this extent would initially also define and briefly explain these concepts